Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 13/14 (2007) ISBN 978-3-941336-42-1
- A Battle of Curves. The stylobate curvature in Greek temple architecture
- Sokratis Georgiades - Maria Georgiado
The curvature of the temple stylobate is one of the “refinements” or “optical corrections” in ancient Greek
architecture. Its meaning and purpose has been an issue of debate among scholars since its re-discovery
in the beginning of the nineteenth century. A critical question within this context has been the mathematical
character of the curves and the method of their construction.
- Der Artemistempel von Korkyra
- Martha Weber
When slabs of the west pediment of the temple were found it was called Gorgo temple based on what is depicted
in the centre of the pediment. Later, two pedestals with inscriptions from the 4th and 3rd century BC were
discovered reused nearby the temple. Since the inscriptions address Artemis, the Archaic temple could be
identified as a temple of her, even though the depictions in the west pediment are iconographically related
to Athena. Due to the lack of knowledge of what was represented at the east pediment, the side facing (which
faces) the altar, new conclusions regarding the temple can only be expected when the Greek-German excavations,
which were interrupted by World War I and II, are going to be continued.
- The Study of AtticPottery
- G.R.H. Wright
Argueing from a position that Attic figured pottery was ‘poor man’s’ incised plate, some contemporary classical
archaeologists have impugned the validity of traditional study of Greek pots on the grounds that, because of
the low price of these products, study of them in themselves and not for their social and economic context is
not valid scholarship but simply ‘connoissership’. A recent criticism of this attitude drew attention to the
fact that if this attitude were applied to other fine arts, e.g. music, it would entrail a reductio ad absurdam
-since music could then be studied without the requirement of reading a score. In the interim an astonishing
notice has appeared concerning this matter.
- Persians by the Walls. A Tale of two Greek Cities, ca. 500 BC
- George R. H. Wright
Excavations conducted 40 years ago at Paphos in Cyprus and at Cyrene in Libya produced outstanding evidence
(considered both artistically and historically) of initial conflict between Achaemenid Persians and Greeks
for world dominion, which Herodotos was to portray in the manner of Spengler as the tragic destiny of Ancient
History. The excavations bespeak closely parallel events: the presence of Persian expeditionary forces
threatening Greek cities ca 500 B.C.
These events are not only notable in military history, they are also of importance in the history of Greek
art and in the religious manifestations which Herodotos seizes on as the image of the destined struggle. In
this way they merit confront study (as yet lacking) both in the interest of Ancient History and in the
criticism of Herodotos.
- Ist die vergebliche Mühe in der Unterwelt immer eine Strafe? Die Fälle der Danaiden
- Manolis Manoledakis
The Danaids and Oknos are characteristic inhabitants of the Underworld, where they act perpetually and ineffectively.
In this paper their cases are examined and dissociated from the cases of the typical mythical heroes who are
punished in the Underworld by constant torture (such as Sisyphos, Tantalos or Tityos), so that it is finally
supported that perpetual vain effort in the Underworld is not always a punishment.
- Ein weinloses Opfer für Dionysos? Unstimmigkeiten in der Ikonographie einer bekannten Schale des Makron
- Michaela Stark
The well- known red-figure Makron cup (Athens, Acr.Mus. 235) shows the infant Dionysus in a procession of the gods
being escorted to an altar where two nymphs are making a sacrifice. The picture is unique in greek art and is set apart
from the canonical scheme of Dionysos being handed over to his divine nurses. The composition and the predominance of
dionysiac attributes show Dionysos as the central figure of the picture and his iconography and the gestures of the
other figures within the procession refer to a divine epiphany.
The sacrifice made by the nymphs must be identified as nephalia and therefore specific fort he nymphs. A possible
interpretation ist he introduction of Dionysos as master of the nymphs (nymphagetes).
- Kadoi für Wein - Kadoi für Wasser
- Letizia Vuono - Ingrid Krauskopf
The inscriptions of two late archaic Attic vases define kados as an amphora-like vessel with an additonal bail handle;
a variant without the side handles may be linked with the „amphora-kados“. According to representations on vases, these
kadoi were used mainly for drawing and transporting water. Sometimes they might be also the vessel for wine, as which
the kados is mentioned by early literary sources; Aristophanes seems the first to use the term for a water pot. Shapes
with a wider mouth, similar to buckets, documented in other parts of Greece already in the archaic period, began to
replace the „amphora-kados“ in Attica at the end of the 5th cent. Called situlae in the archaeological terminology,
they were used for drawing water as well as for transporting wine in Dionysiac thiasoi – especially in Northern Greece
and the Magna Graecia. The name kados probably had been extended to them; a kados sarapiakos should be the situla of
Isis. The kadoi fitting inside one another, with which Platon, Politeia X 616 d, compares the spindle of Ananke, must
have been open, situla-like vessels.The term kados both for water pots and for vessels for wine outlasted the change
from „amphora-kadoi“ to „situla-kadoi“, causing a considerable confusion among the lexicographers of late antiquity.
- Ikonographie als Quelle zum Verständnis
- Martha Weber
The iconography of depictions of Mother and Daughter in the classic epoch is correlated with the depictions of Demeter
and Kora. In the East Tympanon of the Zeus temple in Olympia, the historical mythology of Pelops gaining the reign of
the Peloponnesus is displayed in contemporary Attic iconographic style. Displayed are the statues of Pelops, the
outgoing king Oinomaos and his wife, Sterope, their daughter Hippodamaia, and kneeling her supposed former nutrice.
The iconography of mother and daughter are comparable to those of Demeter and Kora in the Attic iconography during
the period between 5th and 4th century BC. These are consistently represented in a placative manner by their constant
diffent dressing and mother taller than her daughter.
The sculptor Praxiteles –- created a new narrative composition of Demeter and Kora in contemporary style for the presumably
at the time Lycurgos restored Athenian Eleusinion. It shows the Godesses in preparation for the departure of Kora to
Eleusis in company to Jakchos, carrying the torch for their return to Hades, the underground world. Later Roman replicas
of these two goddesses are numerous and are frequently found in the context of funerals in remembering the original myth.
- Neues zur Metrologie des Tempels der Pallas Athene zu Athen
- Hanspeter Hanisch
Carrying on the discussion about the metrology of the temple of Pallas Athena in Athens it can be demonstrated
that the measurement units used in constructing the temple were not one but two, both derived from the old
Babylonian so called Gudea-cubit, which was 0,4962m long. One of them can be identified also at two other tempels
of Athena at the Acropolis.
Explaining these strange results a theory will be developed, which, however, should be regarded as speculative.
Hence it could be assumed, that said units had been used, because they were linked with the goddess, and that
the goddess herself was in earlier times identified with the moon.
- Altertümliches am Skulpturenprogramm des Parthenon
- Helmut Brand
It has been noted by many archeologists that the sculptures of the Parthenon, the most modern building of its
time, display many ancient elements, both iconographic and stylistic. This study demonstrates that these elements
appear in particular on scenes featuring myths of gods, heroes and religious activities. The use of these elements
was not the result of aged or outdated artists, however, but these motifs were used consciously to elucidate the
old age and venerability of mythic and divine acts.
- Zur Spätdatierung des Attischen Münzdekretes IG I3 1453
- Frank Hildebrand
The Coinage Decree of the Attic-Delian League is one of the most important decrees in the history of the 5th century
BC. There are eight fragments of inscriptions from different poleis of the League. Because of its contents seeming
imerialistic of discussion was mostly reduced to the dating. In this text it is shown that the forms of letters are
not a forcing argument for a dating around mid 5th century BC. The numismatic evidence and the literary sources
allow a dating circa 430 to 420 BC. Another focus is set on the assignment to equate coins, measures and weights.
The previous discussion was focused only on the coins, but measures and weights are very important for Athenian
naval power. They are another instrument to take charge over the poleis in the Attic-Delian League and a sign of
getting their ‘autonomia’ controlled.
- Prachtvolles vom Stadtrand
- Maria Xagorari-Gleißner
At the time of Lykurg, rich Athenian citizens like Hieron, successful netoikoi like Nikeratos of Istros
and other significant persons like Harpalos created outstandig grave monuments for themselvesof for their
family members in the suburbs of Athens. The monuments have the form of a naiskos, expressing an new
tendency in the attic grave architecture. The naiskos of Nikeratos is influenced by minor-asian architecture
and art. The erection of those grave monuments was the result of financial and political measures of Lykurg,
who tried to protect Athens against the Macedonians.
- Names for Athenian Women: Remarks on Athenian female onomastics during the Roman Period
- Kalliopi Apostolaki
According to the ancient onomastic practices, the personal name reflects expectations concerning the personality,
the properties, the life, and the patron divinities of the bearer of the name. For this reason, a study of
onomastical practices provides information concerning the values and the social institutions of a community,
although sometimes names were given because of family traditions and regardless of the personality or gender
of a person. In Athens, although female names exist for earlier periods as well, a systematic study is possible
only from c. 146 BC onwards, when the material becomes abundant and when one may observe changes caused by the
Roman rule and the great mobility. This article presents an overview of the major religious and social phenomena
that have inspired female names (theophoric names, names connected with the life and properties of women, names connected with appearance, character, occupation, social position, etc.), focussing in particular on old traditions and new names.
- Korrekturen zum Apollon-Kopf v. Heyl
- Reinhard Stupperich
The assumptions about reworking of the head of Apollo from the v. Heyl collection (published in Thetis 11-12,
2004-05, 109-112) are corrected here on the basis of a replica in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen
The two stylistically different replicas elucidate the original type of the head, which must have belonged
to an Apollo of the 4th century B.C., not to a female figure.
- Aphrodite und Aineias am thermaischen Golf
- Emmanuel Voutiras
Thessalonike was founded by Cassander around 316/5 BC. The view that the city was built on the site of ancient
Therme is not supported by either literary or archaeological evidence. The only major find antedating the
Hellenistic period is a late Archaic Ionic temple which G. Bakalakis tried to connect with the cult of Dionysos.
But this temple bears architectural marks of the early Imperial period and was therefore probably transported
from elsewhere. Dionysios of Halicarnassos informs us that the Greek city of Aineia, merged into Thessalonike
by Cassander, claimed as its founder the Trojan hero Aineias, to whom a local tradition attributed the building
of a temple for his mother Aphrodite on a promontory near the city. It is suggested here that this temple was
brought to Thessalonike under the reign of Augustus in connection with the cult of Julius Cesar, who claimed
descent from Aphrodite.
- Die sog. Trunkene Alte in Mannheim. Zur Rezeption und Deutung der Alten Priesterin
- Ute Uebel
The so-called ‘Drunken Old Woman’, the Roman copy of a Hellenistic sculpture, formerly in the
collection of the Elector Palatine at Mannheim, today in the Glypothek at Munich, is being
reinterpreted on the basis of close inspection of the outer appearance from the point of view
of a medical doctor. The result is astonishing: She is not an alcoholic, but obviously has
suffered from long use of drugs of the sort of Mandragora or Belladonna, which point to her
being an old prophetess or priest giving oracles under the influence of these drugs.
- Ein syrischer Adonis. Untersuchungen zum Typus einer hellenistischen Jünglingsstatuette
- Katrin Hess
The article examines a type of bronze statuettes that shows a standing young man with an unusually draped robe and
corkscrew curls which was spread from India to Italy and Greece. Apart from the bronze statuettes there are even
terracottas found at Petra, which show a very similar motive, and a marble relief from the Hadrianeum at Rome seems
to modify the type as the personification of a province. Recently has turned up a marble statue at the art trade,
which belongs to the same type. So it seems that the original has been a less or more life sized statue that could
have been situated in Syria, where a lot of the statuettes and perhaps even the marble statue have been found.
Although the type was obviously well known in Antiquity it is impossible to name him. It can only be said with
certainty that it was a god of Dionysian character, perhaps a kind of Baal or Adonis. Stylistically it is possible
to date the original at the late Hellenistic period, but most of the statuettes were probably created during the
Roman Empire between the 1st and 2nd century AD.
- Ovid und Pompeji
- Erika Simon
Ovid’s poetry – especially his Metamorphoses – and Pompeian painting correspond in many themes. In some cases later
Pompeian painters also illustrated stories from the Metamorphoses, such as Apollo and Daphne, Pyramus and Thisbe,
and – very often (34 examples) – Narcissus mirrowing himself.
- Leda and the Swan in Cyprus
- Sylvia Barnar
This article is about the three mosaics on Cyprus representing the myth of Leda and the swan. It examines the
iconography of each, especially trying to analyse what the myth would have meant to Roman Cypriots. It concludes
that the inclusion of the Eurotas River and the representation of Lacedaimonia accentuate the Cypriot interest
in mainland Greece and the traditions of Sparta. It examines the presence of swans in Cyprus and concludes that
they were northern birds seen there primarily in the winter. It also notes that the myth of Leda and the swan
does not appear anywhere before Euripides and so is primarily part of Hellenistic and Roman rather than ancient
- The Other Side of Parnassos: A Philhellene Calamity
- George R. H. Wright
During the troubled course of the Greek War of Independence very dire events took place in a Greek chieftain’s
stronghold on Mt Parnassos. None of the personnel directly concerned in this calamity were native Greeks.
They comprised a Phanariote Greek, an expatriate American, a Scotsman and two Englishmen (the would be assassin
and the victim). With the exception of the Phanariote Greek the personnel were all Philhellenes, and indeed
Philhellenes of honourable and respected backgrounds. In the abstract it is difficult to reconcile persons
of this nature with the criminal acts planned and carried out. However in some measure recent history has
afforded a new insight into the realities of such proceedings. Thus it is now appropriate to examine and
reconsider the untoward events.
- Klassizistischer Baustil in Griechenland. Woher stammen die Firstakrotere der Athener
- Frank Hildebrand
In the classicistic architecture of Athens there were used a lot of ornaments, for example the ornamented
acroteria at the Academy of Science and the National Library between Omonia- and Syntagma-Square. By
searching for the origin of these types one can find many evidences of ancient ornamentation. The main
examples are the grave monuments, especially the Attic Namenstelen. Some acroteria refer directly to
ancient monuments, others are worked in a wider sense with combined elements. Not only in the architectural
ornamentation the Attic Namenstelen werde used, but also as examples for grave monuments at the First
Cemetery of Athens. The archaeological excavations around 1860 at the Athenian Agora and at the Kerameikos
brought to light a lot of objects. These seem to have initiated an enthusiastic feeling and extensive
researching of ornamentation in the last decades of the 19th century.
- Der Großraum Athen. Ansätze und Initiativen zur Landschaftsgestaltung im Rahmen der Stadtentwicklung seit 1834
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Veneta
Athens, the capital of Greece, meanwhile a four million moloch, suffers from the consequences of planless unlimited
growth without any regulations or restrictions. Thus not only an urbanistic, but also an ecological catastrophe is
impending, threatening to annihilate the beauty of the site and its historical nimbus. The different stages of this
development are described here. It was not before the middle of the 1990s that a slight improvement of the situation began.
- Rosinen und Archäologie, Paläokastro-Aigeira
- Anton Bammer – Ulrike Muss
The article ‚Raisins and Archaeology’ studies a place called Palaiokastro which is located above the ancient
city of Aigeira in the northern Peloponnese, close to the sea. The region is used since venetian times for the
cultivation of grapes. The ancient site of Aigeira was occupied since neolithic times and had its greatest extension
in the hellenistic period. Pausanias describes the site quite extensively. In the slavic period the whole area was
settled by Slavs and the names of the villages testify this occupation. The Venetians conquered this region twice
and introduced the principle of ‚Villegiatura’. From the Turkish occupation no remains can be studied. Since the
liberation the ancient site of Aigeira was occupied by compounds which were used seasonal during summer and autumn,
for harvesting and drying of the grapes. These small houses of the farmers have been built to a high degree with
spoliae coming from the town of ancient Aigeira. This study documents these buildings and tries an ethnographical
study of the site. For this purpose the still living owners of the compounds have been interviewed and their way
of living and working has been studied.
- Die Entstehung des Puschkin-Museums der Schönen Künste in Moskau
- Reinhard Stupperich
The correspondance between the directors of the newly founded Museum of Sculpture “Albertinum” in Dresden
and the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscou, later to be named after the poet Pushkin, Georg Treu and Iwan Zwetajew,
has just been published in exemplary methodical manner, and now enables the reader to follow up from close
distance the planning and growing of the later Pushkin Museum around the turn from 19th to 20th centuries,
from idea to concept and on to realisation, in all stages. Zwetajew used the Albertinum as his major example
of a replica sculpture museum comprising the complete history of art, and its director, his friend Treu, as
his continuous advisor in all sorts of problems, technical or art historical and more and more even personal,
when they became friends. This is of utmost interest not just for the history of museums, but also for a
general impression of the work in archaeology and for international cooperation at the time.
- Widerstand und Kollaboration in Zentralmakedonien
- Vaios Kalogrias
The History of the nationalist groups in Central Macedonia during the German occupation 1941-1944 is almost forgotten
or fast unknown. Organizations like YVE, PAO or EES are usually remembered as the Greek enemies of ELAS. Their bias
had not been yet seriously explored. This makes difficult to understand the complicated issues of Civil War and
military Collaboration with the occupying authorities.
Some of these groups (YVE, PAO, EDES) were founded by Greek army officers and wanted to resist against the Axis.
Others (EES) accepted German military help and fought against ELAS. The Civil War between the nationalist groups
and ELAS was one of the main reasons for the formation of an armed collaboration movement.
- Der griechische Bürgerkrieg „innerhalb der Mauern“. Auswirkungen des Bürgerkrieges auf die Stadt Thessaloniki
- Stratos N. Dordana
Till now the events that took place within the walls of the city of Salonica in the decade of the 1940s, have
not been the subject of detailed study. The city were perceived merely as reverberations, it nevertheless
was an area of lively political ferment and social upheaval ultimately determining and shaping events in
general. Throughout the decade of the 40s Thessaloniki manifested a socio-political force with a distinct
urban character influencing the turn of events in Macedonia, at the same time being affected by events in
Athens. The aim of the present paper is to examine the various social and political proposals that were
put forward directly after the Liberation for the city’s reconstruction. After the Dekemvriana the people
of the resistance, i.e. the forces of EAM/ELAS, relinquished their power to representatives of the
middle-classes. During the Civil War Thessaloniki endured the consequences of the conflict despite the
fact that in general terms it remained beyond the frontline. The exclusion of opponents as a tactic of
the State, the control of political beliefs, exile and executions, the deprivation of the right to participate
in social and political activities through imprisonment, the detention of political prisoners, and ultimately
the death sentences imposed, transformed the Macedonian capital into an actual battlefield where a tough
battle was waged, this time within the city walls.
- Der Weg zum Putsch des 21. April 1967
- Heinz A. Richter
This article describes the events between October 1966 and 3rd April 1967 when Kanellopoulos formed his
doomed cabinett. Special emphasis is given to the ASPIDA trial and the role of Andreas Papandreou who was
alien to Greek politics. Accordingly his father did not enlighten him about his political manoeuvres which
led to a political compromise with the right wing ERE and the king. The collapse of this compromise solution
triggered the coup of 21st April 1967.