Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 20 (2013) ISBN 978-3-447-06890-1 online bestellen
- Europa und der Stier – Eine mythologische Kontinuität
- Stamatis Lymperopoulos
The abduction of the Phoenician princess of Europe by Zeus from the Orient
to Crete was a very popular subject in the ancient world. Since the fifth
century B.C. the name is used in connection with the geographical term,
but it remains within the narrow bounds of understanding the world in
those days. The subject of the abduction is shown in many genres of art
just as it is used for centuries again and again. The Christian iconographia
makes use of this motive of the metamorphosis of Zeus` transformation
into a bull and treats it as equivalent to the incarnation of Jesus Christ.
In the Middle Ages and Renaissance private houses and public places were
decorated with carpets, faiances or sculptures on fountains. In the
beginning of the 20th century, in the year 1905, it served as a wedding
present from the Prussian cities for the wedding of crown prince Wilhelm I.
Modern painters also deal with the abduction of Europe, particularly
shortly before the Second World War. They show a threatening situation
with the rape of Europe contrary to former representations in which the
king`s daughter is more likely seduced and agrees to go along. Germany`s
Nazi regime uses this subject as propaganda. They stress the predominance
over the continent of Europe. After the war the caricaturists have a
critical look at the subject. Political and, above all, economic matters
are now circumscribed by the abduction of Europe satirically.
- 90 Jahre Forschung der École Française d’Athènes im Palast von Malia/Kreta
- Veit Stürmer
The paper presents shortly the most important results of 90 years of french
excavations in the Minoan Palace of Malia. The focus is on the unpublished
part of this excavations done by Olivier Pelon from 1964 until 1998 and the
paper is also dedicated to him.
- Zur Rezeption der minoischen Kultur im Schulunterricht auf Kreta
- Katja Alexandrakis
Since the „Renaissance“ of Minoan civilization within the initial 20th
century the reception and consumption of the so-called Minoan culture
has become pervasive in every corner of Crete. Even though the legendary
island had an extensive relevance during Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine
times, it always comes to the Bronze Age when highlighting the Cretan’s
cultural heritage and local pride. The physical surroundings of
archaeological sites and artefacts play a huge role in developing local
identity. As well in primary as in secondary school and the greek Lykeion
the Bronze Age of Crete is taught. In this context the following article
analyses school books and the contents of teaching in order to prove
pedagogical objectivity and actuality. Can school books in Greece be objective?
- The words Poikilos and Krotokos in connection with clothing and the search
for the sources of the ancient Greek dress
- Andriani Koutsakou
Multi-colored (poikilos) and yellow garments (krokotos) appear in the Aegean
and mainland Greek iconography since the Bronze Age period and always in
a special, mostly ritual context. They are worn by both sexes at that
period but later the yellow garment becomes associated only with women
and one male deity, Dionysus, whose the androgynous nature may explain
this use. The fact that Dionysus and Artemis are both associated with
the yellow garment on one hand and with the leopard on the other makes
it interesting to examine the possibility of a connection between that
animal and the ritual dress in the Greek area. The constant influence
of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Near East on the Aegean is unquestionable.
But these are exactly the areas where the leopard had a special
significance and in the case of Egypt, at least, we have proof that
it played an important role in religion and beliefs concerning the
afterlife. Anatolia seems to have venerated the leopard since the
Neolithic period and maybe earlier. Many deities include this animal
in their attributes. Some of them were also adopted by 1st.mill.BC Greece.
The sporadic finds from the Late Bronze Age period show the existence of
the leopard in iconography and also of garments which may have been an
imitation of leopard skin in fabric, as it was the case in Egypt. Figures
wearing an actual leopard skin also exist in the Mycenaean period. All
this makes it probable that this animal inspired some fabric motifs and
these fabrics were used for special ritual garments.
- Der Heuschreck und die Rebenblüte. Zur „Vogelstellerschale“ im Louvre
- Erika Simon
In this paper I would like to present a reinterpretation of the image
on an archaic bowl in Paris, Louvre F 68. The picture shows a flying man
in the middle of several vines as well as a bird and an insect which
should be a locust. Instead of a dancing or a bird hunting figure, the
scene rather depicts birds protecting the vines from locusts under the
order of the gods - in this picture represented by the bearded flying
person in the middle. Several examples of gods (mostly Zeus and Apollon)
fending off locusts are found in literary sources such as Strabon and Pausanias.
- Hera in Olympia: Tempel, Kult und Münzprägung
- András Patay-Horváth
Contrary to the prevailing scholarly opinion, the analysis of the available
evidence allows the conclusion that the early archaic peripteros at Olympia
was dedicated exclusively to Hera already from the beginning, and the cult
of Hera was similarly ancient and connected to warfare, as that of Zeus.
It can be demonstrated, that the temple was not built by local communities,
but by foreign sponsors, most probably by Sparta after conquering Messenia.
Regarding the elean coinage with the head of Hera, the paper offers a revised
dating (beginning ca. 400 BC instead of the generally accepted date around
420 BC) and a discussion of its purpose and proper historical setting.
- Maroneia. Lokale Feinkeramik spätklassischer und hellenistischer Zeit.
- Maria Deoudi
Archaeological contributions to the topic of city foundings on the Thracian
coast have so far been sparse due to the fact that many excavations, as well
as excavated materials, have not been published. Therefore this article seeks
to close this gap by presenting fineware from the polis of Maroneia, situated
between Abdera and Mesembria. In the partly excavated living quarters in the
city’s southern part numerous portable objects – mostly pottery – of late
classical and early hellenistic times have been found, which give important
information about regional developments of the local material culture.
- Von Heimchen und Hausdrachen. Die Ehefrauen in den Komödien des Menander
- Horst-Dieter Blume
In classical Athens citizen women were largely restricted to their house. The
scene of Menander’s plays was the street, so wives and marriageable daughters
seldom appear on stage. Consequently, Pollux has listed only few masks of
free-born young women. Though there exist a number of misogynist maxims in
comedy, that warn a man not to marry, they do not affect the general character
of the plays that all end in marriage. The wives silently contribute to a happy
ending, smoothing their husbands’ fits of anger. A remarkable exception is a
rich heiress in Plokion: she plays an active part on stage and her meddling
drives the husband to despair.
- Zur Überlieferung von griechischen Porträtfassungen
- Martha Weber
The paper studies how portraits of Greek writers were perceived and their
iconography handed down in Roman times. The focus of the article lies on
Homer and the portraits of Lykurgos, showing the three classical dramatists.
Furthermore, the question of the criteria necessary to identify faithful
copies is discussed.
- Der Gehweg an innerstädtischen römischen Straßen – Gestaltung und Funktion
- Rosmarie Günther
Streets with sidewalks are a city’s blood vessels. The study shows clearly
that Roman streets with their roofed sidewalks were rather comfortable and
played a decisive role. At the same time the sidewalks constituted a vital
part of the human living space. The borderline between anonymity or rather
privacy and public interaction was far less distinct in Roman times than
today. Sidewalks were not only means to walk, but also a place to communicate
or show off, framed by workshops, restaurants and places for recreation.
Graffitis on the facades along the sidewalks show political participation in
the municipal regime. Worshipping spots on them deepened the relations between
neigbours. These multiple usage functions prove that ancient cities were as
urban as modern ones.
- Sportkrawalle im frühen Byzanz (5.-7. Jh.).
- Klaus-Peter Todt
After the abolition or reduction of gladiatorial and wild beast shows (ca. 500)
chariot races became the most important part of the public spectacles in the
circuses of the imperial residences (Constantinople, Antioch and Thessalonica),
the provincial capitals or provincial cities. In Republican Rome it was the duty
of some Republican officials to organize the public spectacles in Rome with the
support of four private professional companies (factiones), each with a special
colour, the Red faction, the White faction, the Blue faction and the Green faction.
Since the 4th and 5th centuries the partisans of these factions were organized in
fan clubs, the „demes“ (from Greek demos, „people“). In this period the public
spectacles were more and more controlled and financed by the emperors and their
officials, especially in Constantinople. During the reigns of the emperors Zeno
(474-475 and 476-491), Anastasius I (491-518), Justin I (518-527) and Justinian I
(518-565) the fans of the Blue and the Green factions incited a lot of dangerous
riots in Constantinople, in Antioch and in other cities of the Empire attacking
the partisans of the rival faction or the Emperor himself, his officials (for
example the prefect of Constantinople), his policemen and soldiers (especially
in 491, 493, 498, 507, 512, 514, 532, 548, 556, and in 561-565). These riots were
frequently, but not always an expression of simple hooliganism and vandalism.
Sometimes they were a serious protest against the religious policy of an Emperor,
against corrupt officials or against high prices and starvation. During the revolt
against the Emperor Maurice (582-602) and during the revolution against the Emperor
Phocas (602-610) the fan clubs of the Blues and Greens in Constantinople and in the
provincial capitals and cities played a very prominent role. In October 610 Heraclius
the Younger overthrew the regime of Phocas with the massive support of the fans of
the Green faction and ascended the imperial throne.
- Vom Nutzen der Geschichte für die Politik: angewandte Wissenschaft bei Mehmed
dem Eroberer. Mehmed Fatih – Achilles – Alexander der Große.
- Johannes Koder
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was a gifted politician with a well developed sense
for propaganda, who worked continuously on his myth-making. Thanks to his erudition
he understood the importance of the historical dimension for the actual politics;
he connected his propaganda – and his fate – with two dimensions of history:
1. the convergence of Ottoman and Muslim greatness: His name was for him a challenge.
Although, as far as we know, personally not religious, he nevertheless acted
consciously as religious leader for the Muslims. He understood this position as a
useful tool for the historic mission to conquer, as a “new Mohammed”, the new Rome,
and to strive after the final victory of the true faith for the Ecumene.
2. the reference to the Ancient, pre-Christian world: The overlapping antagonisms
Hellenes / Barbaroi and Europe / Asia formed an important part of historiography
and political ideology since Herodotus. These antagonisms inspired the youthful
Mehmed, to present himself as the most important successor of the heroes of a
ncient history, above all the youthful world conqueror Alexander the Great, who
was his shining example and at the same time his challenge, which he wanted to
surpass in ruling over the pagan and Christian Ecumene.
- Anne Boleyn in Studley Royal. Eine kopflose Statue im frühesten Englischen Landschaftsgarten
- Reinhard Stupperich
In Studley Royal near Ripon in North Yorkshire, may be the eldest English landscape
garden, created by the once Chancellor of the Exchequer John Aislabie in die beginning
of the 18th century a marvellous surprise view on the close by gothic ruins of Fountains
Abbey was decorated by the headless marble torso nicknamed therefore Anne Boleyn’s
seat. This fragment formed part of an original Hellenistic colossal cult statue,
perhaps from Asia Minor. As we know Aislabie found fragments of ancient sculpture
in the cellar of his London house, built in the area of Arundel House the seat of
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel and creator of the first spectacular sculpture
gallery in England in the early Jacobean era, this torso must have belonged to his
collection, too, and probably was brought to England by his agent William Petty around
- Menschen und Orte in Griechenlands Reiseliteratur
- Niki Eideneier
International travel literature on Greece is undergoing increasing dynamic growth. This
paper’s primary concern however is the particular view of travel or topography d
escriptions in Greek fiction. One notices immediately that this is more about the
writers’ impressions and the key role of the people in their native places. The
landscape shapes their characters, and vice versa: People also put certain stamps
on their hometowns.
- im Land der Griechen – Eine kulturelle Nachlese
- Hans Eideneier
“Seeking with the soul the land of the Greeks“ was, and still is the impetus of
the Germans, even well beyond the 19th century. Goethe and Hölderlin were strictly
bound to figures such as Iphigenia, Diotima, and places like Arcadia, that were
being taught at German schools. A comparison with the real Greece of their day
was not part of the agenda. Today especially Germany is missing bridges that
could have been built during the 19th century to overcome this mentality steeped
- La réception de la notion de constitution par les juristes et les délégués aux assemblées constituantes en plein XIXe siècle en Grèce.
- Ivy Mavromoustakou
Until about the end of the 19th century, Greek legal and politological thought
oriented towards the French tradition of natural law, had been reproducing the
values of classical liberal thought. The liberal values professed by Greek lawyers
were certainly considerably altered by their osmosis with the rhetoric of romantic
nationalism. They were however expressly set out in the Constitutions of 1844 and
1864 – especially so in the latter – in which the liberal institutions were
consolidated. In order to specify the key features of the concept of the constitution,
lawyers and delegates to the Constituent Assemblies make use of the political and
constitutional history of Europe and of North America, as well as of contemporary
reality. In parallel with these references to history, they establish a dialogue
with personalities of the European culture. However, the legal tradition especially
whereby it was sought to found the constitutional regime on history and political
philosophy, is gradually declining towards the end of the 19th century. Finally,
the turn of the century will mark the beginning of the efforts to pave the way
for acceptance of the methodological tools of legal positivism and of the thought
of German theorists of the positivist school.
The present study refers to the models and the values which formed the basis for building
in Greece a constitutional and centralized State – models that the legal world reproduced
and formulated in its own particular way within the Greek reality of the 19th century.
More specifically, we will study how the concepts of the constitution and of the ways in
which power is organised were interpreted by the Press during the decade of absolutist
government, by the delegates to the two constituent assemblies of the mid -19th century
nd by the lawyers of that time and until almost the turn of the century.
- Philhellenismus in Deutschland und Großbritannien
- Günther Heydemann
The insurrection of the Greeks against the Ottoman rule in the years 1821-1829 lead
to the foundation of a national Greek state in 1831 and called forth a Philhellenic
movement in Europe and America. A total of 1200 volunteers participated in the
Greek struggle for national independence supported by various philhellenic societies
in Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Great Britain. The willingness to support
the insurgent Greeks actively and passively was motivated by two reasons: on one
side Greece, as the cradle of European civilisation should be helped to shake off
the ‘Turkish yoke’ for cultural and educational reasons whereas on the other side
the Greeks, as an old Christian people, should be supported against their ‘pagan
oppressors’ for religious-humanitarian motives. Moreover, it was desired to bring
Greece that liberty which did not exist in the Europe of Restauration after 1815.
Insofar, the struggle for Greece’s liberation also functioned as a surrogate for
the bondage under Metternich’s system. However, the actual military contribution
of the European volunteers in Greece was rather modest. The loss of lives was high,
over a third of the Philhellenes did not return to their home countries or died of
epidemic plagues and malaria. Furthermore, the arrival of European volunteers in
Greece resulted in a profound disillusion: the intellectual helpers with their
ideals of the antique Greek classic heroes clashed with the reality of the rural
life of Greek farmers and shepherds. The degree of disappointment was so great -
especially among the German Philhellenes - that they soon prepared for their homeward
journeys. Despite being equally formed by a classic ideal of Greek antiquity, in
contrast, the British Philhellenes had a more realistic perception of the actual
situation in Greece due to their access to a free press. However, the British
hilhellenism was motivated to create Greece as a new constitutional state that
should function as a model for Europe, but this idea subsequently turned out to
be an illusion as well. All in all, both the German as well as the British
Philhellenism failed, because it was not until the naval battle of Navarino in
1827 that lead to the destruction of the Turkish-Egyptian fleet through a
British-French-Russian fleet armada, brought a successful liberation of Greece.
- Eine neuzeitliche „Periegese“ Griechenlands. Der „südöstliche Bildersaal“ (1840-1841) des Fürsten Hermann von Pückler-Muskau.
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
In 1836, Fürst Hermann von Pückler-Muskau, a well known German writer and landscape
gardener, travelled through Greece for nearly a year. He anonymously published the
journal of his travel with the title „Südöstlicher Bildersaal. Griechische Leiden“
four years later. His descriptions mostly consist of detailed and precise
characterisations of the Greek society, everyday life and the personality of
the people. Although he often uses anecdotes and created opposits to illustrate
his observations, his reports are remarkably
- Voyageurs français dans l’île de Chypre au XIXe siècle
- Lucie Bonato
Until the mid-nineteenth century, Cyprus was primarily the destination of those
who needed to achieve there a diplomatic, evangelical or business mission.
Travelers arrived in the island by duty or by chance and the English were in
majority. As from 1845, the island attracted scientists’ attention, the French
being pioneers in several areas: medieval history, geology, archeology, photography.
As from 1865, they virtually disappear from the Cyprus scene, to come back during
the last decade of the century with the arrival of several scholars and the call
of the first French „tourists“ at Famagusta.
- Greek perceptions of the First Balkan War and Venizelos’s efforts to preserve the Balkan Alliance.
- Spyridon Sfetas
For the Greeks the First Balkan War was the Greek revenge for the defeat of 1897.
It reestablished the reputation of the humiliated Greek state. The so called „Great
Idea“ got a clear-cut meaning. The historical mission of the Greeks was not merely
to civilize the Orient, but to unite the Greeks into one Kingdom. Old prophecies
about the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire revived. Venizelos believed that
Greece should evolve into a maritime power to the detriment of the Ottoman Empire,
but in compliance with the Great Powers and taking the international circumstances
into account. Venizelos’s long term policy towards the Ottoman Empire had underlain
his efforts to preserve the Balkan Alliance.
- Greek Bilingual Writers
- George Giannaris
The present essay examines the phenomenon of bilingualism in literature, and
more specifically Greek speaking and writing authors who have written literary
works in more than one language, works that have met success recognition among
the reading public. The purpose of the essay is to analyze the synthesis of two
or maybe three literary attempts by a single individual who possesses deep
knowledge of several languages and produces literary works with merit that can
compete in the world arena of Letters. The section deals with the languages
and types of literature that have been published by authors of Greek origin
who write in two or possess knowledge of more than one languages, as well as
implement themes that are imported into the literature of another language.
Although there is a considerable number of authors of Greek origin who write
and publish literary works in other European languages, I limit myself to
strictly prose, poetry, and drama, while I remind the reader that a vast
number of scholars, critics, research workers have produced an immense amount
of significant studies. Coming closer to more familiar grounds, one will
observe that the essay includes people such as Dionysios Solomos, Jean Moreas,
Dimitris Kapetanakis, Nicolas Calas, Theodore Dorros, Constantine Kavaphis,
Nikos Kazantzakis and Kay Cicellis.
- Deutsche Gesandtschafts- und Konsulatsberichte über den „Bandenkampf“ in Makedonien (1903-1908).
- Vaios Kalogrias
During the last period of the Ottoman Empire a guerilla struggle between armed
Christian groups took place in Macedonia (1903-1908). Especially Greek,
Bulgarian and Serb “Bands” fought each other with the purpose to extend their
influence over the Christian populations of that area. The most efficient
organization was the Bulgarian IMRO, which tried to achieve the autonomy of
Macedonia. On contrary, Greek and Serb organizations were mostly trying to
avoid the “Bulgarization” of the Macedonian lands. The armed clash was a
serious threat for the Ottoman state and was condemned by the Great Powers.
German sources provide us with useful information about the character of the
“Bandenkampf” and the nationalist antagonisms between the Balkan governments.
They also describe the fears of the Reich about the outbreak of a European war.
The Macedonian question was indeed a trouble spot of the European diplomacy.
- , “Kunstschutz im Kriege”. The Forgotten Scholarly Expeditions of the Central Powers in South-East Europe during World War I.
- Mihailo St. Popovic
The present article illustrates the scholarly activity of the Imperial Academy
of Sciences in Vienna (Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien) behind
the frontlines of the Central Powers in South-East Europe during World War I
(1914-1918). Both the Austrian State Archives and the Archive of the Austrian
Academy of Sciences (Archiv der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften)
preserve invaluable material on the above-mentioned scholarly activity. After
outlining the historical and geographical setting the author puts an emphasis
on a “Kunstgeschichtlich-ethnographische und archäologisch-linguistische
Forschungsreise in den k.u.k. Okkupationsgebieten Serbiens, Montenegros und
Albaniens” in the year 1916. The evidence published in this article for the
first time is without doubt only the peak of an archival iceberg, which the
author will explore in-depth in the near future by including additional archival
material from Germany and Bulgaria.
- Greek Diplomacy towards Fascist Italy, 1922-1940
- Antonis Klapsis
The article seeks to explore Greek foreign policy towards Italy from the
establishment of the Fascist regime to the outbreak of the Greek-Italian
War in October 1940. Covering a time span of almost two decades, the article
focuses on the most important incidents that shaped the way Athens viewed
the evolution of Greek-Italian relations during this period. In this context,
it is argued that after the mid-1920s Athens sought to establish cordial
relations with Rome as a means of exiting its post-Lausanne diplomatic
isolation and as a tool for counterbalancing pressures from other neighbors
(or, in the sui generis case of the Pangalos dictatorship, to form an
anti-Turkish alliance with Italy). However, this attitude gradually changed
after the early 1930s, as Greece became more and more apprehensive of Italian
revisionism and expansionism, which in the end led to the complete rupture of
bilateral relations during the Second World War.
- Der unerklärte Krieg der nationalistischen Organisationen in der griechischen Gesellschaft der Zwischenkriegszeit: Ideologie, Rhetorik und Ausgrenzungen
- Stratos Dordanas
The article is concerned with some of the most prominent Greek nationalist
organizations of the interwar period, charting their inception, rise to power
and decline. The factors that fostered the appearance of such organizations
and reinforced their interventionist role in Greek society are examined
through the study of the ideological arsenal of the organizations’ leaders,
the rhetorical dynamics, and their degree of impact on the base of society
and on the socio-political elite. As with the rest of Europe, nationalism
and militarism comprised the constitutional pillars in Greece at this time,
while a new patriotism - arising from the alarm of international communism -
entered the national scene through the political programs and the political
declarations of these various organizations.
- Deutsche Künstler und Intellektuelle als Besatzungssoldaten auf Kreta.
- Harald Gilbert
In the Second World War Crete was occupied by German and Italian troops. They
were waiting for an allied invasion which, however, never occured. So some
peaceful activities were possible, too. German scientists explored animal
life in the White Mountains. Erhart Kästner, a well known author, traveled
in Crete and described his impressions and experiences in a rather famous
book, perhaps the most read book about Crete ever written by a German author.
Painters like Rudo Schwarz and Alfons Abel were deeply impressed by Crete.
They could perform an impressive artistic work. The paintings of Schwarz
were recently published at Iraklion, those of Abel will be published here.
- Die Darstellung des Zweiten Weltkrieges im griechischen Lied
- Loukas Lymperopoulos,
Songs can have a variety of different functions like entertainment, collective
memorial history, impression of political views etc.The second world war
lasted for four years in Greece, from October 1940 – October 1944. There
were thousands of casualties and immense financial dammages. This essay
shows how the Greeks survived through the war in its different phases and
how these experiences took shape in songs. The course of war is presented
in a short description and the appropriate songs corresponding are related
to the different phases. In order to understand the songs better the
translations are not given literally but with their basic meaning. Notes
of the music for some songs indicate the tunes.
- Generaloberst Alexander Löhr. Befehlshaber der österreichischen Luftstreitkräfte - Chef der Luftflotte 4 - Oberbefehlshaber Südost in Saloniki
- Gerhard Weber
Colonel General Alexander Löhr was one of the most important Austrian
officers in the Wehrmacht. Before Austria was incorporated into the
third Reich he played an important role in the secret rebuilding of
the new Austrian air force. In 1938 Löhr was recruited by the Wehrmacht
as Commander of the “Luftflotte 4”, which in September 1939 realized
the bombing of Warschau. In April 1941 the “Luftflotte 4” bombed
Belgrade following Hitler’s order to destroy the city. In those two
military actions Löhr already realized his idea of the leading role
of air forces in military warfare of which he was convinced since
the ‘1920s. On direct instruction of Hitler in July 1942 Löhr became
the “Commander Southeast” in Salonika. In this position he was
responsible for oppressive measures against partisans in Greece and
Yugoslavia. Although personally he was modest and polite in his behaviour,
he executed all the orders and did this in some cases more severely.
Written statements of Löhr prove that his own positions were quite close
to the national-socialist ideology. In 1947 was convicted of war crimes
and executed in Belgrade.
- „Den Raum als Einheit erfassen“. Südosteuropa als Kommunikationsraum in den Zukunftsplänen und Diskussionen über die nationalsozialistische „Neue europäische Ordnung“ 1940-1945.
- Milan Ristovic,
Planing the future of „supplementary economic space“ on the Southeast took into
accaunt its great importance for the Third Reich as the space which geographically
and in transport terms constituites a bridge toward other major areas. Ambitious
plans for the construction of a network of new communications through the Southeast
have been updated. Promotion of sailing on the Danube was planned, since extreme
was attached to this rever as the German river“ and communication artery which
should connect, passing across the Southeast, the political and economic center
of Grossraum with the newly-conquered Lebensraum in the East. Old plans have
been modified with the addition of new, more ambitious ones, such as construction
of a dense network of canal that would connect the Danube with Morava, Vardar
and Aegean, etc. Construction of a highway that should „keep the space together“
from Hamburg to Bosporus was also discussed. The Southeast should have become a c
ommunication springboard for penetration to the Near East and Middle East, Northern Africa.
- Old Interpretations and New Approaches in the Historiography of the Greek Civil War.
- John Sakkas
This article outlines the main body of literature on the Greek civil war and
evaluates the changing historiographical trends in the field since the 1950s.
Specifically, the article demonstrates how the study of the civil war has
evolved in three areas: historical approaches, research fields and topics,
and methodological tools. During the Cold War scholarly research centred
narrowly on high politics and diplomacy and the political question of whether
the Greek Communist Party or Anglo-American policy makers were more responsible
for its outbreak. After the collapse of the Soviet Union it began to focus on
the social and economic aspects of the civil war and to examine a series of
issues ranging from local histories and case studies to gender and ethnic
relations. The article concludes by raising several challenges and opportunities
facing the study of the civil war period both at present and in the future.
- Sühnung von Kriegsverbrechen, Reparationsforderungen und der Fall Merten.
- Heinz A. Richter
This study analyses these three subjects: The post-war judicial persecution
of German war criminals in Greece and in Germany, the question of German
reparations to be paid to Greece and the case of Max Merten who there
still is considered as a major war criminal. The article shows how the
first instalment of German reparations in the form of dismounted industrial
goods worth about 30 million dollars never reached Greece. Had this material
arrived in Greece a basis for an industrial development might have been
created. The second camouflaged reparation payment was the 200 million
Deutschmark investment loan of 1957. The well-known 115 million mark
payment was not a reparation but an indemnity for victims of Nazi terror,
i. e. primarily the Jews. When Bonn began to drag its feet during the
negotiations, the Greek authorities arrested Max Merten a former administrative
officer in Salonika and used him as a kind of hostage to put pressure
on the Bonn Government. This study shows the interdependence of the three topics.
- Zum 125. Geburtstag von Hans Freyer am 31.7.2012. Ein Beitrag zur deutsch-türkischen akademischen Kooperation
- Brigitte Freyer-Schauenburg
As visiting professor at Ankara University in the 1950s and 1960s Hans
Freyer played a decisive role in establishing the discipline of Sociology
in the Republic of Turkey. His scholarly activities were combined with a
profound attachment of the whole Freyer-family to the country and its history.
- Der deutsch-deutsche Kampf um Nikosia. Städtepartnerschaften als politisches Mittel im Kalten Krieg
- Thorsten Kruse
During the Cold War, Cyprus was repeatedly in the focus of the interests of
the two German states. Between 1964 and 1972 the relations of these three
countries were influenced by the tense conflict between the two German
states. Both Bonn and East-Berlin tried to gain political and economic
nfluence on different levels. One level was the matter of “town twinning”.
Since 1964 this means of local government politics became a tool the
Foreign Ministries of both German states liked to use. In 1965 the East
German city of Schwerin as well as the West German city of Karlsruhe to
become the “twin city” of Nicosia – the capital of the Republic of Cyprus.
Both tried to achieve their aim by employing more or less legal methods
of political persuasion. But the Cypriots on the other hand tried to play
their own game concerning the question of “town twinning”.
- Geopolitics, Vulnerability and Populism. Greece's Failure to Pursue a Comprehensive Ostpolitik, 1959-1972.
- Evanthis Hatzivassiliou
Viewing itself as a minor and geographically exposed member of the Western
world, Greece tended to be sceptical about the prospect of détente, fearing
that its interests might easily be neglected in an overall East-West
negotiation. This article attempts to interpret the Greek failure to
formulate a comprehensive Ostpolitik until the early 1970s. It argues
that the sense of vulnerability played a major role in Athens’ scepticism
regarding a forward policy towards the East. At the same time, a country
going through a tense crisis of legitimization – as Greece was, in the
mid-1960s – could easily fall prey to internal political passions and populism,
the impact of which on Eastern policy was corrosive. An imaginative détente
policy required a confidence regarding relations with the West, that Greece
lacked throughout this period.
- Turkey’s Neo-Ottoman policy and the Greece-Israel-Cyprus Axis. Historical and Geopolitical Parameters.
- Andreas Stergiou
A redrawing of the political map and significant shifts in the traditional
balance of power following the Arab Spring led Turkey and Russia to claim
new roles in the south-eastern Mediterranean. The energy deposits in the
Cypriot and Israeli Exclusive Economic Zones discovered between 2009 and
2011 and the deteriorating Turkish-Israeli relations since 2008 triggered
serious tensions in the region. Indeed, due to a series of bellicose
incidents during 2008-11, the relationship between Israel and Turkey went
through a period of great tension after 50 years of close and successful
cooperation. In a classic example of the “enemy of my enemy is my
friend”, Israel and Cyprus – and by extension Greece – came together
into a natural alliance. For the first time in their history, Athens
and Nicosia gradually set a pro-Israel course with cross-party consensus.
Israel needs Greece and Cyprus because it lacks strategic depth and, in
part, maritime experience. Greece and Cyprus need an ally that can provide
strong technical, strategic and military support against Turkey. The
expected economic benefits from huge natural gas and oil reserves, in
particular those lying in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the three
countries, contributed significantly to the formation of the alliance.
The article discusses the geopolitical and historical background of
- The Church of Cyprus’ Transition into the 21st Century
- Victor Roudometof
This article examines the institutional changes of the Church of Cyprus
during the colonial (1878-1960) & post-colonial periods of the island
(1960-2006). During the colonial era, the Office of the Archbishop became
a post of national leadership for the Greek Cypriot nationalist movement.
Its peak was the reign of Archbishop Makarios III who served as the
Republic of Cyprus’ first President (1960-1977). Gradually, after his
1977 passing, synodical governance was reestablished. This process
was completed after the 2006 archiepiscopal elections with the drafting
a new Constitutional Charter. These changes are analyzed in terms of
the Church’s shifting role from a nation-leading authority toward a
mainstream religious institution operating in a modernizing 21st century society.
Die gegenwärtige Krise
- Ökumenischer und real-existierender Hellenismus. Wie der ökumenische Hellenismus sich dem Überleben der real existierenden Hellenen entgegenstellt – Kritische Bemerkungen.
- Konstantinos P. Romanós
The values of ecumenical Hellenism have long prevailed in the civilized
world, but what about the living Greeks themselves? This essay is dedicated
to them, to the problem of their survival and to their importance for the
free spirits of Europe today.
- Politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Entwicklungen auf Zypern 2011-12
- Hubert Faustmann
The article analyses the main political, social and economic developments in
Cyprus in 2011 and 2012. The contribution is not an academic article in the
strict sense as it is based on two internal reports of the author for the
German NGO Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. The first part is almost identical
with the annual report for 2011 written in January 2012, the second a
much longer version of the account for 2012, authored in January 2013.
The text deals with the Mari disaster in 2011 and the ensuing deterioration
of the political support of President Demetris Christofias, the talks
about the reunification of the island (which came to a standstill in
Spring 2012), the EU presidency of the Republic of Cyprus in the second
half of 2012, the prelude of the presidential elections in the south (
which took place in February 2013), the main developments in the dispute
between the Turkish side and the Greek Cypriots over the Hydrocarbons
off the coast of Cyprus, the threatening bankruptcy of the Republic of
Cyprus and the negotiations with the Troika about a bail out but also
with the developments in the north (in particular the austerity measures
and ongoing Turkification).
- Abschied von Iphigenia. Gedanken zu einem versagenden kulturellen Muster
- Danae Coulmas
The present international economic crisis caused a deep obfuscation of
Greek-German relations. The old cultural pattern of German philhellenism
based on classical times collapsed and brought about a deep misunderstanding
based on prejudices. Today Greeks and Germans need to find new ways of
understanding on the basis of a new European intercultural approach.
- Die politische Kultur Griechenlands – Ein Essay.
- Heinz A. Richter
This essay analyses the political culture of Greece and compares it
with the political culture of Western Europe. It comes to the conclusion
that they differ totally. Greek political culture is based on clientelism.
Clientelism penetrates the whole society. Political parties are
clientelistic networks based on the rousfeti system. For the average
Greek living in such a state it is quite normal that he tries to cheat
it as much as possible. The Oligarchy exploits the state, steals its
money and is taxfree.
- La crise socio-politique et économique de la Grèce actuelle. Regard rétrospectif sur un moment concernant son histoire
- Areti Tounta-Fergadi
It is doubtless that for more than two years now Greece has been involved
in a crisis which is mostly “national” in nature, with all the meanings
that this word contains. We live tragically crucial and painful moments.
As a result, there are many reasons that press upon a deeper look in
Greece’s historical past, in order to boost our national consciousness
and reinforce once again our self-respect and our dignity.
The inherent weaknesses of the modern Greek state from the moment of
its official establishment (1830), its weak economy, its limited
geographical territory which was however very important from a
geostrategic point of view – a fact that made it vulnerable to
the desires and the rivalries of neighboring and non-neighboring
countries, made the resort to external lending unavoidable, whereas at the same time they provided its foreign “friends” opportunities for frequent interventions.
The Asia Minor campaign and the consequent tragedy of Smyrna resulted
in the creation of the refugee problem, a fact that obliged the
Greek state to seek for external lending. The consultations with
the League of Nations and with the foreign lenders for issuing a
second refugee loan (1928), which was part of the socalled Tripartite
Loan, were conducted mainly by George Kafantaris, Minister of Finance
in the government of Alexandros Zaimis.
- Was Sie womöglich schon lange über die griechische Krise wissen wollten, doch so noch nirgends lesen konnten
- Konstantinos P. Romanós
The debt-crisis of Greece rests upon the foundation of a progressing
demographical and ideological destruction of Greek society through
Globalization and its agents. Illegal migration of a scale unknown
to other European countries, accompanied by a silent transformation
of national education into multiculturalism, have undercut the coherence
of Greek society as well as its potential for resistance against corrupt
politicians who on top of everything created an odious debt of the country
as a whole. Nonetheless must Germany, and those European countries that
followed in conducting an unprecedented character assassination of the
Greeks in the media and public debate, finally realize that they are
rendering a poor service to European solidarity, as well as to the values
of democracy, humanism and autonomy, which are a part of the historical
Greek heritage of European civilization.