Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 21 (2014) ISBN 978-3-447-10338-1 online bestellen
- Ein Lehnstuhl für Dionysos und Palmen in Delphi
- Ingrid Krauskopf,
The calyx krater of the Kadmos-painter is a typical example for illustrating
themes connected with the political concerns of Athens. It shows an encounter
of the gods Dionysus and Apollo which is either the arrival or the move out
of Dionysus in or out of Delphi, where he replaces his brother in winter while
he is with the Hyperboreans. This article deals with the origin of two certain
iconographic elements of the krater, the palm tree and the armchair. After
a short analysis of the connection between Delphi and the palm tree follows
a discussion of the armchair, which is said to be prepared for the incoming
god. In this context, connections are drawn to the Theoxeniae as well as to
the Anthesteriae and also to different depictions of these feasts on pottery,
in order to identify the meaning of the armchair in connection with Dionysus.
The difference between the reality of the cult and the imagination of the
painters is brought up as well, so that finally the entire context is considered
in connection with the export to other Mediterranean countries like Campania
- Athena Velletri – eine Eirene von Polyklet als Friedensdenkmal am Prytaneion in Athen?
- Martha Weber
The article presents and discusses the tradition, iconography, interpretation
and the question of the sculptor of a marble statue of Athena – a copy of the
original bronze statue from the last quarter of the 5th century BC –, called
„Velletri“ after its finding place. The tradition of the Athena statue can
be followed for nearly 600 years until 260 AD in the form of several antique
plaster casts in Baia, fragmentary marble copies in Athens and Italy as well
as Roman Athenian coins. The Athena Velletri is generally connected with the
peace of Nicias in 421 BC and appears as a symbol of this peace.
Since A. Furtwängler, researchers have meticulously compared the head of the Athena
Velletri with the Amazon type Sciarra and concluded, that Kresilas is the sculptor of
both works. However, newly found copies of the Amazons indicate – especially in
comparison with written sources (Plin. n.h. 34,53 and Lucian imag.4,6) – that the
sculptor of the Amazon type Sciarra is Polyklet rather than Kresilas. Which leads
to the question, if the Athena Velletri was originally made by Polyklet as well. To
answer this question, a detailed analysis of the Amazons and their state of research
is necessary. In conclusion, it can be stated that the larger-than-life bronze statue
of Athena Velletri is the agalma with the epitheton „Eirene“ described by Pausanias I
18.3 as standing at the Prytraneion in Athens.
- Voices from the Past – Herodotus' Account of Oral Traditions and its Consequences
for Modern Historical Research
- Corinna Hoff
The commanders of the Persian fleet fighting before Salamis in 480 BC (Hdt. VII 98)
consisted mainly of non-Greeks bearing names that sound un-Greek. Already in the
19th century attempts were made to reconstruct the original forms of these names.
The results were never debated in depth despite growing knowledge and comprehension
of non-Greek indigenous sources, but nevertheless in some cases they were used even
for drawing further historical conclusions. In the case of the Lycian mentioned by
Herodotus in VII 98 an investigation of the Lycian linguistic and onomastic evidence
shows that the form of the name given by Herodotus is probably due to misinterpretation
of oral tradition.
- Vergil und die Ara Pacis
- Erika Simon
The article aims to prove the close connection between the Ara Pacis and
the works of Vergil – namely the Aeneis –, known and appreciated by Augustus.
Thus, the relief with Aeneas? offering on the front side of the Ara Pacis can
be interpreted differently than often done in research literature: Instead
of an offering to the Penates in Lavinium at the river Numicus, the offering
is (in accordance with Vergil) to the goddess Juno at the river Tiber, that
way creating a bridge to the relief with the Lupercal on the left side and
the founding of Rome. The absence of the goddess herself can be explained
by the fact that gods often appear in their invisible form as numen, when
offered to. The connection with Juno is further implied by the horologium
near the Ara Pacis in the Campus Martius: in her function als Juno Kalendaris,
offerings were made to her every first day of the month.
- Idealbild und Lebenswirklichkeit. Literarische, epigrafische, archäologische Quellen
und Befunde zu den Handlungsräumen der Frau im römischen Wohnhaus
- Polly Lohmann
This article brings together evidence of the activities of female household
members, especially of the domina, in order to locate their actions and
movements within the domus and to question the existence of separate women’s
rooms or quarters. The discussion centres on representations of Roman women
in textual and visual sources in comparison to ‘everyday life’ as partially
reflected by the archaeological records from Pompeian houses. The aim of this
comparison is to overcome the frequently mentioned desideratum of investigating
the spatial relationship between different household members: Whereas previous
scholarship has focused mainly on the person of the dominus and localised his
activities, such as salutationes and convivia, in certain room types, the
‘female sphere of action’ has not sufficiently been investigated. Information
regarding the whereabouts of women (as well as children and slaves) in the house
is relatively sparse in the ancient sources and has therefore found little discussion
by modern scholars. The present article strives to bring together all available types
of sources and methods on female household activities and their locations.
Following the Introduction (I) on the current state of research, Chapter II explains
the general ideological connection of women with the domestic sphere as reflected in
literary sources. Chapter III is a collection of literary, epigraphic and archaeological
sources which represent jewellery, cosmetics, spindles and wool baskets as typical
female attributes. These symbols – underlying social conventions and expectations –
illustrate beauty care and wool-working as topoi of traditional female household
activities. Chapter IV presents different methods and material that had formerly
been applied to spatial investigations of Roman houses: In IV.1, literary anecdotes
regarding women’s rooms are assembled; it is argued here that no consistent terminology
exists for rooms used by women. Chapter IV.2 gives an account of attempts by various
scholars to identify women’s quarters in several Pompeian houses on the basis of
architecture together with wall and floor decorations. These interpretations have
clearly developed in accordance with modern perceptions of Roman housing and of
the isolation of the domina, her daughters, guests and other females in rooms
removed from the main area of the domus. Chapter IV.3 introduces artefact distribution
analysis as the only method available to determine ‘small-scale, short-term activities’
and thereby to come closer to daily life. Here, the distribution of objects established
above as being (at least traditionally) the attributes of women in the sources is
examined based on the research of P. M. Allison. Despite the many methodological
difficulties which artefact distribution analysis in Pompeii presents, the finds
indicate a flexible use of rooms rather than separate women’s quarters. There is
not only evidence for the coexistence of diverse activities within the house and
its single rooms, but also for the concentrated storage of domestic items, especially
in atria. In most cases, large cupboards and chests with mixed assemblages also
contained valuable items and could have functioned as show-pieces. Together with finds
of loom weights, the objects show the symbolic presence of women, mainly the domina,
in the ‘first place of the house’ (cf. Cornelius Nepos). This supports the practical
and symbolic role of the domina as centre of the household. Altogether, the textual
sources as well as the archaeological evidence reflect the open and unrestricted movement
of female household members throughout the house and put to rest the idea of separate
- Das römische Kastellbad in Ravenglass. Eine typologische Einordnung und Rekonstruktion von Walls Castle
- Matthias Hahn
The ruins of the Roman bathhouse at Ravenglass, also known as Walls Castle,
belong to the best-preserved Roman remains on the west coast of Northern England.
Excavations of the late 19th and more recent research of the 20th century give
a partial description of the structures and construction dimensions of the thermae,
which form the foundation for further analyses. In comparison with other thermae
from the same region around Hadrian’s Wall, like the military bathhouses at
Benwell, Bewcastle, Carrawburgh and Chesters, which were all designed based on
the so-called Hadrianic layout and in comparison with the more recent thermae
at Vindolanda, it is possible to assign the bathhouse at Ravenglass to that group.
Previous research offers some considerations which draw a relation between the
military bathhouse at Ravenglass and the Hadrianic type. This paper allocates and
reinforces this typological classification with which some hypothetical additions
will be developed to gain an entire reconstruction of the actual structures of the
- Wasser für die Stadt. Einige Beobachtungen zur Topographie von Troizen
- Johannes Fouquet
Given the small amount of archaeological fieldwork that has been done at the Argolid
polis Troizen, the topography of the ancient city is in large parts still a matter
of contention. The focus of this article is a brick-built structure which for a long
time has been wrongly identified as a Roman grave monument. In contrast, the article
puts forward the view that the building dated here to the Late Antique period formerly
functioned as a sedimentation tank of a water line supplied by the river Chrysoroas.
The abundance of water probably was a key element of the significance of Troizen
during this period. Furthermore, by using a stretch of the otherwise no longer traceable
Late Hellenistic diateichisma as foundation, the building may elucidate the development
of the city’s fortification during the Roman period.
- The Cypriot St. George
- Sylvia Barnard
The article focuses on Saint George, an especially popular saint in Cyprus in Byzantine
times, being depicted in several churches which are today part of the UNESCO world heritage.
His traditional image consists of a young beardless man with curly hair and a red cloak
riding on a white horse. He is often depicted with a young boy riding pillion behind him,
emphasizing his role as a saviour; and mostly paired with another mounted saint (St.
Demetrius or St. Theodore are the most common), thus reminding the observer of the Dioscuroi.
The article presents the Cypriot image of St. George and discusses questions of his origin,
martyrdom and tradition as well as his transformation during the Byzantine period.
- Ein neuzeitlicher Kelchkrater in Erbach – zur Erbacher Hochzeitsvase
- Volker Heenes
This contribution deals with the interpretation of the depiction on an early-modern
chalice-shaped crater executed by the painter Johann Wilhelm Wendt from Erbach. Up to
now, the depiction on the crater, in particular the instrument held by a woman seated
on a klismos in her left hand, could not be explained satisfactorily. The vase painting
was reproduced in the catalogue of the first collection of vases owned by Sir William
Hamilton, in the Antiquités étrusque, grecques et romaines etc. published by Pierre-François
Hugues d’Hancarville, who was unable to interpret the depiction. On the original vase in
Catania which had served as the model for the drawing the instrument can no longer be
recognised. Recent research has brought to light that in the first publication of this
Sicilian vase in Antionio Francesco Gori’s Picturae Etruscorum in vasculis (1767) the
publisher Giovanni Battista Passeri simply restored the instrument and labelled it a
“monochord” in his commentary. Supposedly this was played by the woman on a feast day.
This seems to confirm to the full the long-suggested occasion for which this early-modern
chalice-shaped crater might have been created – the wedding of the second eldest daughter,
Louise, of count Franz I of Erbach.
- Hellenen und Philhellenen während des Unabhängigkeitskampfes der Griechen
- J. Benos
Philhellenes are the foreign fighters, who came to Greece to struggle for Greeks Liberation.
They were in great parts from Europe and US-America. It was no war between Christians and
Moslems but a struggle against the authority of Osman Sultan. Also came Philhellenes
Moslems: Albanians, Arabs, Bosnians and Turks.
Important for the liberation of Greece were not the fighters, but the support from serious
Personalities,who propagated for Greeks in their countries with books, articles in
newspapers, speeches, proclamations etc. They had changed the opinion of the European
Governments for the Greek Liberation
- Thomas Allens klassische Musiker im Orangenhain
- Reinhard Stupperich
Thomas Allen (1831-1915) was a famous designer working for the porcelain factory
Wegdwood, known for their series of tiles with classicistic themes. The article’s
focus lies on an ensemble of six tiles, depicting musicians in an orange grove.
Their attire, the musical instruments they play and the influence of ancient
Greek as well as contemporary art (for instance Thomas Moore) on the design are discussed.
- Friedrich Hebbel und die bildende Kunst
- Erika Simon
Friedrich Hebbel (1813? ? –? 1863) was interested in art almost all of his life.
He often wrote about visits to museums, exhibitions and artists, and composed
poems about particular works. His interest lay especially in portraits of
important historical and artistic personalities, focussing on the idea behind
the picture and the expression, rather than describing it in detail. His
favorite painter was Raphael, whose paintings, in Hebbels eyes, show the true
nature of beauty.
During his studies, he first turned towards classicistic art – especially
Thorvaldsen in Copenhagen – but later discovered his love for the classical
antiquity during his travels in Italy. His two favourite works were the Apollo
Belvedere and the Juno Ludovisi. Like with the other works he discribes, his
approach to the statues is more like „reading“ than visualising, focussing on
the idea behind the artwork. The beauty (and the statement) of a piece of art
is in Hebbels view the result of a struggle; the importance lies in the process
rather than in the product.
- Die Konfiszierung der türkischen Dreadnoughts und die Operationen der deutschen
Mittelmeerdivision (Goeben & Breslau).
- Heinz A. Richter
When Winston Churchill then First Sealord of the Royal Navy had the two Dreanoughts,
ordered and paid for by the Ottoman Empire before World War I, confiscated he created
the preconditions for the Goeben-and Breslau-affair and the entry of Turkey into the
war. This “act of piracy” (B. Tuchman) shifted the weight from the so far stronger
neutralists to the bellicists within the Turkish Government towards war minister
Enver. Without this mistake Goeben and Breslau would never have sought shelter in
Turkey. And these two men of war were the reason for Turkey’s entry into the war
when they bombarded Russian harbours in the Black Sea.
- Plaka, the old town of Athens. An Historical Note about conflicting preservation
priorities and the search for a constructive compromise
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
The article focuses on the controversional targets set on the one hand by the urban
preservation of an historic city district, and on the other hand by the need of
archaeological investigations in the same area. In the case of Athens the survival
and partial redevelopment of the city’s old district during the 19th century inhibited
the promotion of large-scale archaeological research on the northern slope of the
Acropolis. Later in the course of the 20th century a constructive compromise has
been reached: The expropriation of the urban fabric on the western part of the old
town permitted the excavation of the ancient Agora by the American School of Classical
Studies, while the remaining eastern part of Plaka has been carefully conserved and
rehabilitated as a living testimony of the city’s history.
- Ein Fall von Selbstentfremdung in Athen. Deutsche Übersetzung der Kurzgeschichte von Nikos
Nikolaídis „Der Ungeschickte“ und kritische Besprechung des Textes
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
Descriptions of urban enviroments and of behavioral patterns of urban dwellers are to
be find in many texts of neohellenic literature focusing on the stimulating but also
frustrating aspects of every day?? ’s life in metropolitan surroundings. As a result,
simple narratives gain in depth and become a kind of covered psychoanalytic or sociological
essays. The author proposes in his article a German translation of the novel ‘The clumpsy
one’ by the Greek-Cypriote writer Nikos Nikolaïdis (1884–1956) and proceeds to a critical
analysis of the text in order to uncover hidden informations about modes of perception,
behavioural attitudes and orientational patterns of an alienated personality in an urban
- After Crete – Consistency and Contradiction in the use of the New Zealand Military in Greek Matters
- Martyn Brown
New Zealand’s military involvement with Greek matters during the Second World War
extended beyond Operations Lustre and Mercury in 1941. The Dominion was connected to
the Greek military in several theatres and the armed resistance in occupied territories.
This was within the context of Commonwealth and Anglo Greek relations and changing
Greek political and social forces. Absent from the British and Greek decision-making
circles, the New Zealand politico-military elite had to steer their country’s army
through often complex, publicly controversial and sometimes violent relations with
its Mediterranean ally and Commonwealth leader.
- Die Unterscheidung von Moderne und Postmoderne bei Panajotis Kondylis
- Falk Horst,
Panajotis Kondylis was a philosopher and his body of work dealt with history of
ideas, social ontology, historical sociology, geopolitics, etc. In his work „The
Decline of the Bourgeois Thought and Life Forms“ („Der Niedergang der bürgerlichen
Denk- und Lebensform“), he compared world views of the 19th century (Modern Age)
with those of the 20th century (Postmodernism). The world-view and the idea of
man in modern age is for example that of the „Classic Epoque of Weimar“
(„Weimarer Klassik“), namely life of the European bourgeois in the 19th
century. Here, Kondylis discovered a synthetic-harmonising thought-form
(synthetisch-harmonische Denkfigur), which is contrary to the postmodern
analytic-combinatory thought-form. Kondylis found these patterns in the way
of thinking in the arts (including literature, music, architecture, visual
arts, cinema) as well as in philosophy, science and in commercial and social
life. In the following essay they are visualized in literature from Mozart,
Goethe, Baudelaire and Kafka
- Die Trauer der Koren um ihre entführte Schwester. Kinder nehmen
künstlerisch Stellung zu den entführten Akropolisskulpturen
- Reinhard Stupperich
The discussion about returning the greek sculptures and reliefs taken by
Lord Elgin at the beginning of the 19th century has been led ever since.
In 2010, an Athenian school project realized a new approach, publishing
a book with paintings of 82 pupils about the topic. It is divided in six
parts with different themes, split in two age groups (under and above
the age of ten, with three themes each). The pictures clearly show that
the children intensively discussed, tackled and processed the problem
and creatively used fotos (of themselves and/or the statues), stencils
and free-style drawings to depict the absence of the statues and their
desired return to Athens.
- Die Alexanderschlacht als Weltbild. Von Ptolemaios I. bis Simon Wachsmuth
- Pascal Weitmann
This text tries a new reconstruction and interpretation of the wellknown
Alexander Mosaic at Naples. It is argued that this mosaic is a partial
copy, made at Pompeji itself, by mosaicists from Alexandria or the Orient
in a broader sense, of the early 1st cent. B.C. It is an abridged version
of the original, which was a fresco painting in the palace at Alexandria,
dating from the 320ies b.C. This fresco decorated at least two inner walls
of a large room with a length of at least 15 m, ca. 2,5 m high, the edge
of the room between the two kings, and with a lot more fighting soldiers,
especially on the left side behind Alexander, but in the center and on the
right as well. It was not intended to be an accurate representation of a
particular battle, but of the two fighting parties as such, stressing
especially the signification and importance of Alexander the Great as
ruler of the world.
Fitting to this, its old-fashioned limitation on four colours reflects a
palette of cosmic completeness, based on the philosophy of Empedocles.
The name of the painter of this fresco must stay unknown to us; it can’t
have been Philoxenos or Apelles.
An excursus points to the installation „Where We Were Then, Where We Are Now“ at
the documenta 2007 at Kassel, which was an interesting variation on the mosaic a
nd its representation of the clash of the great powers and cultures of Orient
and Occident then and now.
- Politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Entwicklungen auf Zypern 2013–14
- Hubert Faustmann
The article analyses the main political, social and economic developments in
Cyprus in 2013 and 2014. The developments in the Cyprus Problem and the impact
of the social and financial crises are in the centre of the analysis. The
contribution is not an academic article in the strict sense as it is based on
two internal reports of the author for the German NGO Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
The first part was written in January 2013, the second in January 2014.
- Clare Sheridans Bericht über die Vertreibung der Griechen aus Smyrna 1922.
Ein vergessener Augenzeugenbericht
- Heinz A. Richter
There exists only one direct eyewitness report on the burning of Smyrna in 1922.
It is the report by the American Consul General George Horton which appeared in 1926.
The accounts of Marjorie Housepian and Giles Milton3 are based on eyewitness reports
and sources but they did not watch the events themselves. So far there has been no
eyewitness report on the forcible expulsion of the Greeks after the burning of the city.
Clare Sheridan, a journalist and sculptor and a cousin of Winston Churchill was present
and wrote a moving account of the brutal events on the waterfront. So far her account
has not been taken notice of by historians, and therefore it seems expedient to reproduce
the relevant chapters here.
- Roma im Südwesten der Peloponnes. Athigganoi – Aigyptoi
- Caroline Fischer
Roma are the largest but also the most marginalized ethnic minority in Europe. Their
presence in Europe is recorded for nearly thousand years. One settlement is documented
near Modon (today Methoni) in the southwest part of the Peloponnese in the 14th century.
From there Roma groups immigrated later on also to Spain. What about Roma in Greece
today and especially in the area of Messenia? It is a challenge to realize a successful
implementation of EU-Programs for equality treatment and social inclusion of Roma in
times of increasing discrimination and racism in Greece today. Besides, integration must
have the manner of inclusion. By confounding integration with decreed assimilation, social
exclusion will continue. Knowledge in Roma history and their cultural heritage should be
utilized much more in the including process in order to develop self esteem by the minority
and acknowledgement among others of the Roma including influence in European music by