Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 3 (1996) ISBN 978-3-941336-34-6
- Zur Herkunft der frühzyprischen `Entenkannen'
- Peter Misch
'Duck-vases' are small askoid vases which were quite common on Cyprus in the Early Bronze Age. They have an asymmetric shaped globular body with an upward-sloping, very narrow spout on the shoulder. These characteristic small askoi show interesting typological similarities to the well known Cycladic 'duck-vases' which appear on the Cyclades and in Mainland Greece at the turn of Early to Middle Bronze Age. These peculiar affinities have mislead archaeologists to the conclusion that the Cypriote duck-vase are imitations of the Cycladic duck-vases. Some scholars even expressed the opinion that these similarities proof a very tight cultural relation between Cyprus and the Aegean in this phase of the Early Bronze Age. But the Cypriote type of duck-vase is in fact a special ceramic shape which has no direct connection to the Cycladic type. Most probably it stems from quite a different geographical region.Typological ancestor may be a distinctive Western Anatolian prototype which evolved out of the local neolithic or chalcolithic and which may have inspired a little later the appearance of the Cycladic type of duck-vase as well.
- Bronzezeitliche Arktoi? Zum Verständnis der Tonfiguren von Ayia Irini
- Anne-Monika Dürk
Numerous female statues were found in the Bronze Age Temple in Ayia Trini on Kea. The chronological sequence of the different groups as well as the questions of cult and function are discussed. The most important criteria for achronological classification are the different arrangements of the interior wooden supports. The development seems to go not from the simple to the more complex, but from complex to more simple arrangements. The great number of female statues suggests to us the cult of a female deity. The statues seem to be votive offerings from young girls just as in Brauron in classical times.
- Zu den Anfängen der Mythenburleske. Griechische Mythen in den Komödien Epicharms und bei Stesichoros, auf Caeretaner Hydrien und anderen westgriechischen Sagenbildern
- Udo Reinhardt
Pictural reflexes of mythical parody were known on Boeotian Kabirian vases for Old Comedy and on late classical south Italian vases for Middle Comedy and Phlyacian play. But the question of the influence of Epicharmus' Dorian Sicilian comedy on vase painting has never been raised. The article compares the specific comical note of mythical themes of Caeretan Hydrias with similar elements in Epicharmus, who is dated early here based on Aristotle. One third of them appears to be identical, especially so in the case of several of Heracles' deeds. Finally further western Greek and Italic mythical pictures are shown to have a possible comedy back-ground, e.g.'Oedipous and the Sphinx' and 'Odysseus and the turtle'. In general one can state that Epicharmus' new visualizing of myth in early drama had a much greater impression on the public and especially on mythical parody in literature and arts than we have assumed up to now.
- A Cypriote Paradise
- G. H. R. Wright
The concept of paradise is brought into sharp focus by an example from Cyprus. The interpretation combines evidence from excavations and literary sources in order to suggest that the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion presented and preserved a paradise in the old oriental traditiondown to Roman times.
- Grabungen in der Nekropole von Assos 1989-1994
- Reinhard Stupperich
A German team has been excavating in the necropolis of the Aeolic town of Assos in the southern Troas for six summer campaigns. The sepulchral rites and burial structures changed considerably during the thousand years this place was used. The excavations produced a lot of most interesting finds and features, some of them rare or even unique up to now. It is the first time that a greater coherent part of a necropole from the north east of the Greek world has been excavated and the results are going to be published. This enables us to form a clearer picture of burial customs in the north east and to add to the social and economic history of the town and the region.
- Parthenon und Pergamonaltar. Das Bildprogramm am Pergamonaltar als Rückgriff auf den Parthenon?
- Max Kunze
Beginning at the time of Eumenes I, the art and religion of Pergamum experienced a number of changes which expressed itself in its dinstinct orientation toward classical Athens. Small scale marble copies of the Athena Parthenos, and probably also the Athena Promachos of Athens, were dedicated in the sanctuary of Athena in Pergamum. The famous Athenian festival celebrated in honor of Athena (Panathenaia) was also observed at Pergamum at this time. Furthermore, marble sculptures depicting the birth of Athena once stood on the roof of the eastern front of the Altar as acroteria. Finally, the Altar's frieze with colossal figures representing the gigantomachy relies on a sculptural program which can be traced back directly to the eastern pediment and metopes of the Parthenon in Athens. The evidence leads to the conclusion that, in contrast to what has been previously surmised, the Altar of Pergamum was dedicated solely to the Goddess Athena.
- Mollusken in römischen Gräbern des Niederrheingebiets
- Heike Kappes und Bernd Liesen
During the excavation of graves in the Lower Rhine area cockels, snail-shells etc. have been noticed several times. But it has always been difficult to find out whether they got there by chance or were added on purpose and thus belong to the grave goods. Only a general survey documenting the different kinds and species in relation to the finding conditions etc. can help in this situation, but such a survey has never been undertaken. The authors compiled such finds in Roman graves of the Lower Rhine region, especially from Xanten and Cologne, and come to first positive conclusions regarding grave burials and import of sea-food. The authors consider their effort as a pilote project and hope that it will be continued and may incite excavators to have an eye on such finds.
- Euripides' Hippolytos: Once or Twice?
- Wolf Rudolph
A Bronce Relief Tondo in the Indiana University Art Museum: The Myth of HippolytosThe Myth of Hippolytos: Two bronze relief mirrors of type T from Roman imperial times are published here, one in Bloomington, Indiana, the other one in Atlanta, Georgia. Each of them illustrates two scenes from the first act of Euripides' Hippolytos. In both pictures Hippolytos is returning from hunting and offering a wreath to Diana. On the Bloomington mirror the second scene is set apart: horses and groom make us anticipate the fatal accident. On the Atlanta mirror Venus occupies the foreground, reminding us of her vivid presence in the prologue of this scene; the other scene is embedded in this one by doubling narrative. The scenes are interpreted here as "real illustrations" just as those on the 'Homeric cups'. Both rare pictorial transformations of literary themes follow the same moral pattern as e.g. Seneca's Phaedra. It seems that they are the first two examples of such transformations on Roman relief mirrors. The two mirrors stem from different work-shops and represent two different stylistic tendencies and stages of chronological development.
- Die Skulpturenausstattung kaiserzeitlicher Theater in der Provinz Asia, am Beispiel der Theater in Aphrodisias, Ephesos und Hierapolis
- A. Can Özren
Extensive excavations in the theatres of Aphrodisias, Ephesos and Hierapolis brought forth a large quantity of major statues and inscriptions from Roman imperial times. There were galleries of imperial portraits belonging to several different dynasties as well as a great number of other portraits of honourable citizens, officials, benefactors and donors, actors, athletes and pugilists and statues of gods, godesses and heroes. The inner rooms of the theatres were used for the presentation of local gods, among them especially those of neighbouring towns and cities. Many sculptures depict Apollo, Aphrodite and the Muses, whereas no statues of Zeus and Hera were on display. In this respect there is no great difference between the theatres in the East and the West of the Roman Empire. Eastern theatres, however, differed in one respect, they contained sculptures of and inscriptions about local politicians and other public figures, thus demonstrating a significant difference to the West: The cultured Greeks of the eastern provinces were extremely proud of their history and tradition and exhibited their pride by taking advantage of the possibilities of Roman sculpture programmes for their own objects.
- Der sog. Carafa-Kopf Technische Untersuchung eines großen Bronze-Pferdekopfes
- Edilberto Formigli
This article analyses the bronze "Carafa-Horsehead" in respect of the technical details aiming at a dating of this object in Renaissance instead of ancient times. The author rejects a dating of the head in ancient times by means of different kinds of analysis, both chemical and technical. His main arguments for a Renaissance-dating are the existence of casting channels in the interior of the head (which are usually at the exterior) as well as the technique of sticking together of the two seperate parts of the head with the help of a kind of "cast-on", while ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Romans used to weld.
- Brodzkis Theogonie. Zu einer Ausstellung in Darmstadt
- Martin H. Schmidt
The contemporary Belgian artist Brodzki uses ancient artefacts and mythology as the basis of his glaced terracotta sculptures. In 1995 he had his first exclusive exhibition in Germany.
- Theophilos Kairis: The Tragic Fate of an Intellectual
- George Gannaris
In this article the tragic life of one of the leading intellectuals of the Greek Revolution of 1821 is described. He fought heroically in the War of Independence, but when the European Big Powers of the time installed Otto von Wittelsbach as a kind of Viceroy of the Powers he was not ready to integrate himself into the new system. Instead he continued to teach radical ideas of the Enlightenment which brought him into conflict with the King and worse with the Church. In the end he became the last victim of the orthodox equivalent of the Holy Inquisition.
- Where the Turban is Substituted by the Hat. Otto Friedrich von Richter and Cyprus
- Rita C. Severis
In 1816 the young Estonian scholar Otto Friedrich von Richter visited Cyprus. Like the other travellers of that period Richter visited the classical sites of Cyprus. At the same time, however, he was interested in the people living in Cyprus. He made a startling discovery: In Larnaca he encountered a society which combined Eastern and Western cultural elements, the western hat mingled with the eastern turban. The article describes von Richters impressions of Cyprus and puts them into the greater context of the then prevailing European cultural background.
- Cyprus and Winston Churchill's 1907 Visit Part II
- George Georghallides
This is the second part of thearticle containing the programme of speeches and meetings during Churchill's brief stay and his subsequent impassioned plea to the Secretary of State for the immediate cessation of the crippling "Tribute" that fostered disaffection and made impossible any marked economic improvement on the Island. Twenty years were to elapse, however, before even a partial alleviation of the Cypriots' burden.
- Die Kommunistische Partei Zyperns (KKK) 1926 - 1944
- Heinz Richter
Today's Communist Party of Cyprus (AKEL) had a short lived predecessor: KKK (Kommounistiko Komma Kyprou). This party passed through the usual development phases of a communist party under the control of the Communist International. During the Second Wold War and after the dissolution of Comintern, however, a new party was put up on principles of democratic socialism: AKEL. After the Cold War broke out AKEL was forced back on the pathof Stalinist orthodoxy.
- The Vlachs of Greece and the Italo-Rumanian Propaganda
- Lena Divani
During the Axis occupation of Greece the vast majority of the Vlachs of Greece, most probably latinised Greeks speaking a language related to Romanian, remained loyal to Greece despite the efforts of Italo-Romanian agents to create an independent Vlach state. The Vlachs proved to be immune to Romanian and Italian courting because they were fully integrated into the Greek state. As there had never been any discrimination there was no temptation to look for friends beyond the border. Neither the Romanians nor the Italians understood that a Vlach-question did not exist in Greece and that all efforts to use the Vlachs against Greece were doomed.
- Another Righteous Gentile: The ICRC Representative in Salonika
- Steven Bowman
The archives of the various Red Cross missions in Greece have not been exploited for their acute observations of the local scene. The author was permitted to read through the relevant reports for material on the Jews of Greece at the archives of the ICRC in Geneva. The article presents a summary of the story of the representative to Salonika, his actions and attitudes toward the Jews during the period of persecution and deportation, and his subsequent dismissal. The period covers July 1942 to June 1943.
- Die RAF und die Dekemvriana
- Heinz A. Richter
This article analyses the role of the Royal Air Force during the British intervention in December 1944 in Greece. At the same time it criticizes the historical account of the squadron which was involved in the fighting showing that it is based on wrong information and is full of mistakes and prejudices.
- Autonomiebewegungen der Slawophonen im Jahre 1944, die KKE und die Sicherung der griechisch-jugoslawischen Grenze
- Spyridon Sfetas
In this study the author uses new archival material to document the view that the autonomist movements of the Slavophones in Greek Macedonia were primarily the result of the expansionist policy of the political and military agencies in Yugoslav Macedonia, fomented by the military liaison officers operating in Greek Macedonia. In order not to endanger the unity of EAM the Greek Communist Party (KKE) tried to handle the Macedonian Question cautiously. However, the recognition of the existence of a "Macedonian Question", the confusion of the national and the ideological sphere, and above all the influence of external factors, made the Slavophones of Greek Macedonia opt for political solutions different from KKE's line.
- The League for Democracy in Greece and the Greek Civil War, 1946-49
- John Sakkas
The appointment of Emest Bevin as Foreign Secretary in the British Labour government, which had been formed after the sensational victory of the Labour Party in the elections of July 1945, was to ensure continuity with Churchill's war-time policy in Greece. In Britain there was much criticism among the Party's own supporters and a pressure group, the League for Democracy in Greece (LDG), was established. The article focusses on the LDG's work and activities during the Greek civil war (1946-49). Firstly, it deals with the LDG's origins and objectives. Then, it examines some important aspects of its campaigning history: the findings of its delegation to Greece in the spring of 1946; its attitude towards the abrogation of civil and trade union liberties in Greece; its reaction to two major propaganda themes put up by the Greek state, the evacuation of Greek children and the Macronissos concentration camps; its efforts for a negotiated settlement of the civil war.
- Die Ereignisse im 1. Bataillon des militärischen Zwangslagers in Makronisos - Griechenland am 29. Februar und 1. März 1948
- C. G. Sarropoulos
On 29 February and 1 March 1948 a massacre took place in the Macronissos concentration camp. The military authorities, the censored press and the government presented the events as a mutiny which had to be suppressed by force of arms. The events, however, were a well planned provocation; there was no rebellion or mutiny. The trial in the Lavrion military court in March 1948 against the "ringleaders" obscured the truth even further. Thus not even the precise number of those killed during the massacre is known. In the second part the article contains personal remembrances of the author. In May 1989 Melina Merkouri, the late Minister of Culture, declared Macronissos a historical site worth to be preserved.
- Children in Turmoil during the Greek Civil War 1946-49: Today's Adults
- A. Mando Dalianis-Karambatzakis
A longitudinal study on children confined with their mothers in prison: Three groups of children whose mothers were political prisoners during the Greek Civil War were followed into mid-life to assess their adult adaptation in relation to early maternal separation and extreme trauma: la) 119 children confined with their 106 mothers in prison Ib) their older siblings and II) 44 children of other imprisoned mothers. The children in groups lb and 11 were never in prison but placed in substitute care. Initial data were collected in prison 1949-50. Follow-up taped free and semi-structured home interviews and an examination of public records were conducted 1980-86.A majority of the children achieved adequate adult adaptation in work and family life and were in good physical and mental health. None were psychotic or criminal. Their life histories suggest that resiliency was promoted by early intervention in prison, the children's individual characteristics, environmental factors in the family (committed parents), networks (caring substitute parents and friends) and their interaction.
- The Makronissos "Readaptation" Concentration Camp in Civil War Greece and the Intellectuals
- George Giannaris
During the Greek Civil War intellectuals on both sides of the political spectrum were confronted with a phenomenon which was believed to have disappeared after the downfall of the Nazi regime in Germany: a concentration camp with all the well known features. Most left wing intellectuals of the time encountered the camp on the island of Macronissos as prisoners. Intellectuals from the other side of the political spectrum, Greeks and foreigners alike, praised the "re-education" efforts uncritically. The article gives examples for both cases.
- Vom Kalten Krieg zur "Neuen Ordnung". Der Faktor Griechenland in der deutschen Außenpolitik
- Hagen Fleischer
Greek-German relations of the entire post-world war 11 period are examined by focussing on the role/importance attributed by the two German states to Greece. The main weight is on the policy of the Federal Republic. Primarily the study is based on unpublished records of West Germany and the GDR, in the latter case through to 1989. Additionally the reactions of the major western allies are observed.
- Aspects of Modern Folklore on the Island of Karpathos
- Minas Al. Alexiadis
(Greece)Karpathos is said to be the most "popular" island of the Dodekanese. In this some aspects of the social and material life of Karpathos are analysed. Private and public celebrations are accompanied by performances of popular poetry. The village of Olympos serves as a typical example; the various elements of the celebrations are analysed and the poetic improvisation displayed is discussed.
- The Spill-Over Effect of Cross-Boundary Ethnic Bonds in a Conflict Situation: The Greek-Turkish-Cypriot Triangle
- Joseph S. Joseph
The Greek-Turkish-Cypriot Triangle: This article deals with the impact that ethnic ties cutting across state boundaries may have on interstate relations in a conflict situation. It examines some of the ramifications that the ethnic dispute on Cyprus had on the triangle of Greek-Turkish-Cypriot relations during the period from 1960 to 1974. Emphasis is placed on the effect that the conflict had on Greek-Turkish relations. Some background information for the period prior to 1960 is provided in order to provide a historical context. Some of the major developments that followed after the 1974 crisis are also presented in rounding up the discussion on the consequences of the ethnic problems that plagued Cyprus at the early stage of its independence.
- Griechenland: Bürgerkrieg 1946 - 1949