Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 4 (1997) ISBN 978-3-941336-35-3
- The Antiquity of the Beehive House: Contestation and Consequences
- G.R.H. Wright
Recent archaeological reporting has it that the roofing of neolithic round houses in the Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean was a horizontal terrace roof similar in construction to that of traditional rectangular building in the area. The evidence adduced for this is examnied and attention is drawn to the stultifying ambiguity of "flat" as used in this connection. Some notice is given of a type of roofing common in later round buildings which is flat (i.e. with plane, not curved, surfaces); but is pitched (i.e. not horizontal). A review of later round houses also demonstrates that the purity of the essential (non-rectangular) form is always maintained, and that the presence of discordant elements is always recognisable as influence from a rectangular building tradition. Some of the implications of this for the very early history of building are mentioned. These are seen to be germane to current enquiry, which is extending ever further back into more ancient horizons.
- Ein frühbronzezeitlicher Keramikfund aus dem oberen Euphratgebiet
- Norbert Kramer
This paper presents a collection of pottery from the magazines of the Reiss-Museum in Mannheim. The circumstances and the exact place where the vessels have been found in the beginning of our century are not known. It is probably the Upper-Euphrat-Region where the railway to Baghdad crosses the river. This is therefore the region of border between modern Turkey and Syria. Especially ancient Carchemish and Hammam, explorated by Sir L. Woolley, and Til Barsib, explorated by M.F. Thureau Dangin and M. Dunand, give exzellent comparisons to our collection. Furthermore thc excavations in the area of the Euphrat-Dam, so c.g. Halawa, bring out comparable material. The date of all these materials is the later Early Bronze Age, i.e. roughly speaking the second half of the third Millennium B.C. Our vessels are mostly well-preserved, but sometimes with traces of secondary bums which are caused by a fire in the Mannheim Schloßmuseum in time of II. World War. The fabric is in most cases 'Simple Ware', but sometimes there are also hardfired and thin-walled pots. Except from a few coloured stripes no decoration can be observed. The majority of these vessels were probably used in grave contexts.
- From Troy to Poland: Notes on the Collection of Antiquities at Poznan
- Dariusz Maliszewski
The article focusses on the small assemblage of Trojan antiquities (30 artefacts) stored at the National Museum in Poznan, which in the beginning of the present century was handed over from Berlin. It is worthy to be pointed out that in this short account for the first time the complete objects description, photos and some drawings as well as their typological and chronological analysis were presented.
- Die naturwissenschaftlichen Datierungen des spätbronzezeitlichen Vulkanausbruchs von Santorin. Eine kritische Diskussion
- Marcel Schoch
The scientific dating of the Santorini eruption continues to be a topic of debate among historians of the Minoan period. On the basis of carbon-14 measurements, dendro-chronological datings, and investigations of Greenland ice core samples, a consensus has been reached that the eruption of the Santorini volcano took place at the end of the 17th century B.C.E., but none of these datings has provided scientifically conclusive results. Numerous archeologists therefore continue to cling to the end of the 16th century as the traditional dating of the eruption.
Without questioning their basic validity , Marcel Schoch examines the uncertainties involved in the scientific datings and arrives at the conclusion that these previous attempts represent indirect evidence at best. A reliable dating can only be arrived at when conclusive identification is made of Santorini ash or dust in a Greenland ice core sample. Since such proof is still lacking, Schoch calls on the scientific community to carry out the necessary research as soon as possible in order to finally solve this crucial dilemma of Minoan chronology, upon which so many other archeological datings depend.
- Alt-Smyrna, Graben H: Zur griechischen Hausarchitektur des 9. und 8. Jhs. v. Chr.
- Andrea Streily
The domestic architecture of Geometric Greece is characterized by a great variety of different building types. Generally a development from curvolinear to rectolinear structures is assumed. This case study of the domestic architecture in Old Smyrna / trench aims to investigate the change of house form for which a more complex process is proposed. First house units are separated through an architectural analysis and a comparative calculation of floor areas. Since no find inventories have been published the functional analysis is restricted to fixed installations. In period I rectangular rooms form a loose conglomeration. Single-roomed houses but also a multi-roomed complex open to a common courtyard area. In period II isolated house units with fenced courtyards occur. Rectolinear single-roomed houses continue to exist but curvolinear structures consisting of two oval rooms are prevailing. In comparison with period I an increasing partition of space and a reduction of house size can be recognized. The change of house form is related to a new settlement organisation which is viewed as an expression of social changes.
- Griechische Grabstelen mit Malerei und mit Relief - Eine Gegenüberstellung
- Ingeborg Huber
In contrast to the well known sculptured funerary stelai, gravestones with a painted decoration were more common than one might expect. A comparison of sculptured and painted stelai shows a surprising variety from Archaic to Hellenistic period: The Archaic period relief stelai and the painted stelai are very similar in iconography and in style. In contrast, the painted stelai of the fifth century B.C. are inferior to the sculptured ones, while in the fourth century B.C. remarkable paintings are found. The latter may reveal some aspects of the contemporary art of painting. The Hellenistic period is characterized by an increasing variety of motives and pronounced regional developments.
- Artificial Illumination in Greek Cult Practice of the Archaic and the Classical periods: Mere Practical Necessity?
- Eva Parisinou
Artificial light in Greek sanctuaries of the Archaic and Classical periods is considered with regard to its applications and the extent of its use in cult practice. The extent to which devices for artificial illumination were simply utilitarian in character is a very interesting question, and depends on ever-changing factors such as form, size, find-context, the nature of the deity worshipped and the diversity of rituals. A number of devices more or less directly linked with illumination are discussed and it is shown that their role in Greek cult is much more significant than once thought. This is revealed by the considerable quantity and diversity of lighting devices, as well as their intensive use in cult practice, all of which are reflected in the sheer abundance of such series in sanctuaries.
- Zur Namengebung des Dipylon in Athen
- Florian Ruppenstein
It is suggested that the name of the Dipylon Gate in Athens is not derived from the double entrance but from the two floors of wallwalks (parodoi). Furthermore, the name Dipylon has sometimes been used as a generic term for the Sacred Gate and the Dipylon Gate together.
- A God versus a King. Power Politics in Euripides' Bacchae
- George Giannaris
The Bacchae of Euripides constitute one of the more integral and unique works in world literature in which three elements coexist to the point of perfection: The tragic, the dramatic, and the theatrical. It is the womb wherein is performed the conception, gestation and birth of the Art of the arts of which the god Dionysos is the patron. Concurrently, the Bacchae may serve as an excellent example of a dramatic conflict of two powerful symbols: The game of power politics played by a religious figure and an omnipotent ruler and cultural figure, as to who is going to dominate and influence the lives of living beings. The work, therefore, can be taken as an essay on power politics among men.
The mystical power of Dionysos offers delight to the young, to women, to the wise and the elderly, while the physical and the divine elements enter into conflict, as also barbarism and civilisation do. In other words, the work forms the most vivid example by which religion becomes an object of critical search and analytical rational thinking. A new worship comes to destroy the political and cultural status quo or what is established, a new force appears, which would impose the devotion to poetry, to joy, to social freedom. The protagonists, god Dionysos and king Pentheus of Thebes, face each other using their individual identities as well as their peculiarities. Dionysos appears as a god or apostle (a foreigner, and the effeminate male) and Pentheus (a king and unmarried). However, the entire lineage of king Pentheus is involved in the tragic drama and is collectively guilty, but the outcome from this tragic conflict is the punishment of the Thebans and the predominance of the god.
- Der Weise von Boscoreale. Apollonios von Perge und die Ptolemäer
- Werner J. Schneider<
Though several names have been proposed, an exact and convincing identification of the 'philosopher' in the famous frieze of the oecus in the villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale has eluded scholars. This article points out that the inscription on the ring on the old man's finger is meant to hint at his peculiar nickname. The somewhat cryptic Epsilon turns out to refer to the sobriquet of the famous mathematician and astronomer Apollonius of Perge. It is argued that a representation of this leading figure of Alexandrian science together with the Ptolemies can be easily explained in its historical setting. Finally, there are further remarks concerning the use of enigmatic one-letter-signs in Hellenistic art.
- Mapping the Route of Paul's "Second Missionary Journey" from Dorylaeum to Troas
- Robert Jewett
The road "down to Troas" (Acts 16:8) has never been thoroughly investigated. An overland route of 400-450 kilometers through the highlands east of Troas is proposed, linking a number of Roman cities, towns and mining sites whose locations have been identified but whose roadways have not yet been documented. Historical studies and archaeological reports in Turkish, European, and American journals are surveyed to suggest the plausibility of this route. Whether such a route in fact existed in Paul's time needs to be investigated by an archaeological expedition specifically aimed at investigating the road network in northwestern Anatolia.
- Das Ubiermonument
- Stefan Neu
The so-called Ubiermonument, a tufa-structure of Augustan times in the SE corner of Cologne's Roman city wall has been interpreted by the excavator J. Bracker as a watch-tower to control the traffic within the Roman harbour. Such towers at the ends of big walls are known from mediterranean harbours. But the wall linking the Ubiermonument with the city-plateau was added in later times. So the monument rather seems to be a mausoleum, considering that in its original form it was a rectangular building with two column- adorned storeys. Some similar tomb-buildings, e.g. the "Tour d'horologe" at Aix-en-Provence are well known. We do not know the name of the man who constructed the monument, but it might have been a high-ranking officer of one of the five legions stationed at the Rhine front in those days.
marium Latinum: Aedificium in angulo meridionali Coloniae Claudiae prope flumen Rhenum situm tofineis saxis aetate Augusti imperatoris structum et vulgo monumentum Ubiorum appellatum ab exploratore J. Bracker turris significata est e qua naves in portu Coloniae observabantur sicut illae turres quae in mari mediterraneo muris fortibus portus Romanos protegebant. Murus quidem, quo hoc aedificium cum planitie oppidi coniunctum erat, postea additum, non uno tempore cum turri exstructum est. Monumentum autem cum duobus tabulatis, quae columnis adomata erant, mausoleum esse videtur, non monumentum ad portum pertinens. Nota sunt nobis nonnulla alia huius generis mausolea, exempli gratia illud quod olim Aquis Sextiis situm vulgo turris horologii appellabatur. Nescimus nomen viri maximi qui sibi hoc monumentum fecit, sed fortasse agitur de quodam legato aut tribuno illorum quinque legionum quae tunc ad Rhenum collocatae erant.
- The Contribution of Byzantine Thessaloniki to the Modern World
- Pavlos Tzermias
The Europeam dimension of Byzantium is of great historical importance: "marriage" between Hellas and Christendom, influence of Byzantium on the Carolinian and Ottonian art, radiation of the Eastern Church hymns into the West, Justinian's codification of Roman law, the role of the Byzantine scholarship in Italy during the Renaissance etc. In different ways Thessaloniki contributed to the European Culture, for instance in the domain of the reception of Byzantine law. But the most important contribution of Byzantine Thessaloniki to the modern world was the Christianisation of the Slavs. The conversion of the Slavs to Christianity showed the remarkable power of the Byzantine world and culture. Cyrill and Methodius acted in the humanistic and ecumenical spirit which Paul Lemerle has designated as "le premier humanisme byzantin".
- Rigas Feraios oder Velestinlis. Ein Leben wie eine Kriminalgeschichte
- Johann Benos
Rigas Feraios is the most important representative of the Greek Enlightenment movement. His ideas and visions went far beyond those customary in his times. He even projected a united Europe. The article describes his life and philosophical and political efforts. The circumstances of his tragic death in Ottoman occupied Belgrad are still not fully clear and give room for speculations.
- Bauen in Athen: Neue Wege des Klassizismus. Gestaltungsprinzipien deutscher Baumeister am Beispiel der Entwürfe für die Athener Residenz (1833-1836)
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
The planning of a new capital on classical Greek soil, i.e. the regeneration of Athens, was a unique chance for implementing the ideals of German Philhellenism in the field of architectural design.
Different alternative design concepts elaborated by German architects for the new royal palace to be built for king Otto (the most distinguished public building in modern Athens, realised in 1833-1836) have been seminal for the further evolution of the neoclassical building tradition in 19th century Greece, opening new perspectivs for European Classicism as well. The present article focuses on the ideological and artistic reorientation of the most prominent German architects of the active in Greece, i.e. K.F. Schinkel, L. v. Klenze and F. v. Gaertner.
- L'Eglise orthodoxe autocéphale de Chypre: Part I: Histoire de l'eglise de Chypre jusqu'B l'independence
- Hugues Jean de Dianoux de la Perrotine
The history of the Christian church on Cyprus is described from the first conversions by St. Paul's pupil St. Barnabas via Byzantine heydays, the medieval oppression by the Latin knights' Catholic church and the role as unifying element of the Greeks on the island under Ottoman rule, down to the rule of archbishop Makarios as first president of an independent Cyprus. The bias is on the history of the modern church under British government, the earlier history being necessary for its real understanding. The interior structure and administration is allways seen in correlation to the history of the Cypriot church.
- Klientelismus in der griechisch-zypriotischen Volksgruppe während der britischen Kolonialherschaft
- Hubert Faustmann
The political culture of today's Cyprus is different from those of Greece and Turkey. It demonstrates more features of a Western European country and fewer signs of their common Ottoman heritage. This is to a great extent due to the 82 year British rule. The social and political changes in Cyprus during this period become visible by analysing one feature, that all countries of the former Ottoman empire had in common: Clientelism.
- The Formation of Turkish National Identity among Cypriots and the Role of the Middle Classes until 1930
- Kudret Akay & Noel C. A. Parry
This paper attempts to account for the development of a specific case of national identification, of namely Turkish-Cypriot identity. It argues, that, the origins of what is at present referred to as Turkish nationalism in Cyprus, is a by-product of a wider Turkish nationalism. This larger Turkish nationalism evolved just prior to and after the first world war. Despite the similarities with Turkish nationalism, Turkish Cypriot nationalism is a sub-case of Turkish nationalism, but shows some different characteristics from it. The core of Turkish Cypriot nationalism is 'integrationist' in character; that is, it aims to dissolve or integrate within the larger "motherland".
- Eleftherios Venizelos at the Paris Peace Conference. Triumph or Disaster
- Joachim G. Joachim
In 1915, Eleftherios Venizelos, the Prime Minister of Greece, declared open revolt against the pro-German King Constantine and the Greek Royalists and succeeded in forcing his country to take up arms on the side of the Entente Allies. At the conclusion of the Great War, Venizelos was invited to the Paris Peace Conference which was convened to reward the victors and punish the vanquished. There the Greek Prime Minister was given a mandate to land troops in Smyrna and administer the district on behalf of the Allies. The Anatolian campaign of the Greek Army aimed at liberating the "unredeemed" Greeks of the Ottoman Empire and unite Western Asia Minor with Greece. This policy was staunchly opposed by General Ioannnis Metaxas (the future dictator of Greece), who, as Chief of Staff, had earlier warned Venizelos that from a military point of view, such an enterprise would meet with certain failure. During the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference Venizelos was also warned by several of his Allies, both military men and politicians. Nevertheless, believing that a unique opportunity had been presented to Greece to free all "enslaved" Greeks from the Turkish yoke and realise the grandiose ambitions of the Megali Idea, he staked his country's fortunes on his original plan, which was doomed to disaster.
- Love and War on Mount Olympus. Jewish Participation in the Greek Resistance
- Yael Feldman (with Steven Bowman)
Research on the story of Greek Jewry during WWII has been largely ignored by scholarship which has relied on the rather out-of-date summary of Michael Molho, IN MEMORIAM, published in 1948. The Israeli novelist A.B. Yehoshua has explored the Sephardi identity in the Balkans and Israel over the past 200 years in his book MAR MANI; his thesis is taken up in this article to explore the myth of Sephardi passivity through an examination of several Greek males and females who fought with ELAS in the Resistance against the German invaders. The individuals chosen forged a bond that led to marriage after the war. Their stories contribute to a new facet of the Greek Jewish experience which goes beyond the tragedy of deportation and extermination in Auschwitz and Treblinka; rather their experiences call for new research into the Greek Jewish contribution to the war against the invasions of Italy and Germany and subsequent Axis occupations of Greece.
- Struwwelhitler und Klein-Musso in Griechenland
- Reinhard Stupperich
In politics as in private life, satire and caricature help to overcome situations one can't cope with at the moment and clarify situations by exaggerating certain points. The Axis invasion of Greece in WW II is subject of some such satire. Roughly at the time of the invasion an English parody of the Struwwelpeter called Struwwelhitler appeared in print. The "heroes" of the stories are Hitler, other Nazi leaders and twice Mussolini. In the first story the boastful invader of Greece is chased by a victorious Greek he-goat, a clear allusion to the Italian disaster in the Epirote mountains. The second story makes fun of Mussoloni's fleet and his mare nostrum policy.
- "Auch Brücken haben ihre Schicksale". Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau der Asopos-Brücke in Griechenland im Sommer 1943
- Hermann Frank Meyer
When the first British Commonwealth sabotage party dropped into Greece in October l942 with orders to blow up one of the three viaducts in Eastern Roumeli, it was suggested that the Asopos viaduct be the choice. It transpired, however, that this was beyond the party's strength, so the saboteurs destroyed the second most important bridge instead, the Gorgopotamos. In May l943 Brigadier Myers again started planning the destruction of the Asopos viaduct. Although Aris Veloukhiotis was initially prepared to commit his ELAS-Andartes to participate in the attack, his co-leaders Sarafis and Tzimas objected and opted instead to destroy Greece's longest railway tunnel. In connection with "Operation Animals" British Commonwealth sapper officers finally blew up the viaduct in June 1943. Its spectacular destruction and subsequent reconstruction under desperately hazardous and extremely arduous conditions by German rail pioneers rank among the most gallant achievements of the Second World War.
- Jugoslawien und der Bürgerkrieg in Griechenland (1945 - 1950)
- Milan Ristovi?
One of the external factors to influence events of the crisis in Greece from 1944 to 1949 along with the super powers, was Yugoslavia. It offered political support to EAM, ELAS and the Greek Communist Party in the first phase of the Greek civil war in 1944 to 1945, avoiding direct, military and material aid at a moment which in foreign affairs was delicate for Tito and the Yugoslav communists. In the beginning of the second phase, from the spring of 1946, the new Yugoslav leadership began sending aid to the communists of the Greek Democratic Army. A stumbling block in Greek-Yugoslav relations in this period was the Macedonian issue, which was a cause of discord not only between the Yugoslav and Greek royal governments but also between the two communist parties. The conflict with the Cominform and Stalin led to Yugoslavia's expulsion from the "community of communist countries". This opened the way for improving relations with the royal government in Athens which culminated in the signing of the Balkan Treaty in 1953.
- Drawn into Conflict? Shaping the Dynamics of United Nations' Peacemaking in the Cyprus Conflict 1964-5
- Oliver Richmond
The UN peacemaking operation in Cyprus was established as a peripheral to the UN peacekeeping mission (UNFICYP) in 1964. The following article illustrates the difficulties of making peace during the Cold War and argues that the short-lived process of UN mediation, from 1964-1965, failed as a consequence of the reluctance of the leadership of the two Cypriot sides to relinquish their initial, and nationalist, objectives. Consequently, UN mediation was drawn into the issues of the dispute and became a victim of the conflict itself.
- Historische Hintergründe des Zypernkonflikts
- Heinz A. Richter
For over three centuries Greek and Turkish Cypriots lived peacefully together. When the Greek Cypriot's wish for unification with Greece (Enosis) became militant and was fought out by arms the British colonial authorities began to stir up Turkish nationalism as an antidote against the Greek ambitions. The result was a kind of civil war on the island. When the British finally allowed Cyprus to become an independent state this measure did not solve the problems created on the island in the meantime: The two ethnic groups regarded each other with deep distrust and both wanted to get rid of the new state. The Greeks still wanted Enosis and the Turks wanted to divide the island and unite their part with Turkey. When in Greece the military took over in 1967 the Greek Cypriot eagerness for Enosis cooled down but their leaders did not manage to start a new policy of partnership with their Turkish counterparts. Thus the conflict between the two communities continued until 1974 when the Greek junta staged a coup on the island. This in turn provoked Ankara which invaded Cyprus with the tacit connivance of the then superpowers. Ever since Cyprus has been a divided and occupied country. Ankara did hasn't paid any attention to resolutions of the United Nations or other international bodies. The only hope for a solution seems to rest with the entry of Cyprus into the European Union.
- Griechische Außenpolitik nach Andreas Papandreou
- Jürgen Reuter
At the beginning of the nineties Greece wittnessed the breakdown of the Socialist Countries almost at its doorstep. The later outbreak of ethnic conflicts, economic crisis and even war caused feelings of angst and threat amongst the Greeks. As will be shown in the case of Albania, FYROM and later Bulgaria, Greece's political reactions drove them into an isolated and sometimes almost hopeless position. Only pressure from critical voices inside Greece as well as from outside, namely the EU and the US, eventually led to a slow change of views and a more relaxed position. Statements and questionaires, particularly on the issue over the naming of the former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia show significant changes during 1995 which was before Simitis' inauguration and eventually contributed to a policy of detente.
Whereas now the various conflicts with the Ex-Socialist States can be regarded as settled, the relationship to the traditionally difficult neighbour, Turkey, remains problematic. Only one week after Simitis took office, he became challenged by the conflict over the islands of Imia. Simitis' mastered the conflict - although highly disputed - and initiated a new policy towards Turkey, involving long-term strategies and using the frame of the EU as well as the support of the United States. Although under the government of Simitis considerable diplomatic steps in the reconciliation process with Turkey have been taken, the basic matters of conflict are still far from beeing solved. Meanwhile, Turkey and Greece are adopting extremely high defense budgets.
- Four from America. Vier amerikanische Künstler und die Antike
- Martin H. Schmidt
The author describes the contemporary works of four living American artists. Indepentend of the original American Abstract Expressionism they found their own artistic way by using figures and topics from European classical antiquity: The ancient lighthouse of Alexandria, Odysseus, Cassandra and Roman god Janus.
- Klaus von Woyski. Griechische Landschaften
- Michael Maaß
The exhibition "Greek Landscapes" by Klaus von Woyski presents a fascinating view of Greece. The artist lived and worked in Greece for many years restoring objects from archaeological excavations. His pictures emanate the magic of a masterly technique, intensified colours, and a refined subtlety of motives.
- The Cyprus Problem - the Crux of the Matter
- Joint Declaration March 1997