Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 5/6 (1999) ISBN 978-3-941336-36-0
- Die “Trau-Kasserollen” Einige Bemerkungen zu den reliefverzierten Kasserollen E 151
- Richard Petrovszky und Reinhard Stupperich
A catalogue of all the examples extant of the type of bronze table pots with long flat handle, no. 151 in Eggers‘s typology of Roman vessels that got its name from the most lavishely ornamented Vienna example that once was owned be Franz Trau. Characteristic features of the type are schematic swan‘s heads forming the ornamental scrolls at the handle‘s end and a childlike amor . A schematic development of the type is proposed based on technical, stylistic and iconographical features as criteria. Combination tables of specific characteristics help to underpin the order. Nearly all copies come from the Roman west, the younger ones mostly from the area of the northern limes, but originally the type seems to have derived from a prototype in the Greek east, one copy being reported to have come even from Arabia.
- Polis-Pyrgos Archaeological Project. Third Preliminary Report on the 1996/1997 Survey Seasons in Northwestern Cyprus
- Dariusz Maliszewski
This article is focused on the 1996 and 1997 field survey seasons conducted within the multi-year program of the PAP in the area of northwestern Cyprus. It outlines has been outlined a new distribution map over a dozen of new ancient sites in the vicinities of modern villages Palathousa and Steni. It should be pointed out that for the first time in the area of Pelathousa village there has been found a cluster of chronologically later sites (Roman, Byzantine). However, close to them remains of earlier, i.e. Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age occupation were also discovered as well as in the area of Steni village. In summary both survey seasons added much new evidence about the cultural-historical context and interaction between human activity and environment in the area under consideration.
- From Troy to Poland: Notes on the Collection of Antiquities at Poznan
- Dariusz Maliszewski
The article focusses on the small assemblage of Trojan antiquities (30 artefacts) stored at the National Museum in Poznan, which in the beginning of the present century was handed over from Berlin. It is worthy to be pointed out that in this short account for the first time the complete objects description, photos and some drawings as well as their typological and chronological analysis were presented.
- Zur Entstehung der griechischen Malerei
- Pascal Weitmann
Geometric vases can be and should be regarded as plastic works. Their decoration has been developed directly out of the LM tradition. Their often triadic main subject may be interpreted as an allusion to the oriental tree of life. In LG vases for funeral use the centre of this triads could perfectly be replaced by the subject of the lying-in-state. Such vases on the graves, conceived both as grave-marker and as plastic tree of life, got consequently bigger by time and achieved the tree-like shapes of amphoras and craters. The connection of tree of life and the lying-in-state, not only regarded as an arbitrary exchange of decorative forms, is thought possible by means of Artemis as goddess of vegetation as well as of life, growth, death. The artists tried to augment the decorative forms on the surfaces of the geometric vases by multiplication, e.g. series of animals. This was not possible with the deceased but only with the members of the funeral. Because of this however the once static, ‘emblematic’ decoration became independent as a narrative picture and the plastic vase-tree ‘degenerated’ to a bare picture carrier: Out of the significant black ornament emerged the silhouette which for the art historical texts of antiquity already marked the beginning of (Greek) painting, just with the end of the ’geometric’ period
- Die weibliche Kleidung in der kypro-geometrischen und in der kypro-archaischen Zeit
- Katharina Giesen
The female dress of the Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic Period depended on the available resources: linen and wool were the major materials having a long tradition in Cyprus as the archaeological report shows. Textile production was well known in the ancient Greek world attested by an inscription in Delphi. Another testimony is a kylix of the 8th cent. BC depicting a horizontal loom with a colourful patterned woven fabric. The different variations of female dress as represented on the vases as well as by terracottas and stone sculpture from the investigated period ranged from the total or partial absence of clothes to different forms of a sewn tunic. The goddesses or adorants can be shown nude or with bare breasts.
From the 7th cent. BC onwards was there the simple tunic in various colours with a large rectangular decollete. Belts and mantles were added. A special form of the tunic is the „„Cypriot costume" which was fastened with a large belt, probably also of woven fabric. By the end of the 6th cent. BC the Ionic costume of the chiton combined with the himation was slowly adopted.
- Weihgaben aus der Magna Grecia
- Michael Zelle
The Lippisches Landesmuseum in Detmold owns a small number of miniature vessels and terracotta figurines, whose provenance is Southern Italy or Sicily. They date back to late archaic/early classical times and may have been votive offerings. Whereas the miniature vessels were presumably used for symbolic drink offerings, the terracotta figurines may have had different functions within the cult practices such as miniature cult images or symbolic votive offerings.
- Gestures Indicating Unity and Attention - About the Idea of Classical Attic Grave-Reliefs
- Marion Meyer
The characteristic feature of classical Attic grave-reliefs is the representation of the deceased person in the company of one or more members of the oikos. The idea of these compositions has been debated since the 18th century. In the last decades interest shifted towards the role of these monuments as means of visual communication within the polis. Recently there is a tendency not only to stress the legal and social function of the grave-reliefs (demonstrating status, civil rights, standardized performance), but to regard this function as exclusive; thus the private aspects of these monuments are overlooked, and they become disconnected from death and mourning. My paper wants to challenge this one-sided approach by studying the use of gestures of communication. These should be valid indicators of the commissioners? motivations. If the grave-reliefs aimed at public display of normative behaviour, gestures should be strictly differentiated according to gender. If the grave-reliefs focused on the continuous sequence and mutual interest of the generations, gestures of communication were expected to be found predominantly between parents and children. It turned out that only the very rare gestures of vivid attention - like holding out a hand towards someone, touching somebody?s forearm or chin, bending down to and/or embracing a person - are subject to differentiation according to gender: they are performed exclusively by women. The expression of affection is restricted to the female members of the oikos. The common gestures of unity, however, are not used with any discernible preference for either sex or any age. By far the most common gesture is the dexiosis - signifying lasting unity. Usually restricted to partners of equal status, on the grave-reliefs the dexiosis connects members of different sex (often husband and wife) and different generations and can even connect an adult with a child. This indiscriminate use of the dexiosis sharply contrasts with its application in real life and is therefore unable to reinforce social roles and rules. The gesture of putting one?s hand on another person?s shoulder is used with indifference to gender and age as well. It almost exclusively occurs in scenes that also show a dexiosis, and it is always performed by a surviving person who touches either the deceased one (who is involved in dexiosis) or a relative. This gesture emphasizes family bonds. The inherent contradiction in the scenes with dexiosis or the touch on the shoulder - they evoke unity whereas their commission was caused by the very destruction of unity - can be seen as an attempt to cope with this experience of destruction. Within the family a case of death is experienced as a personal loss and as a general threat to the unity and continuity of the family. The compositions of the classical Attic grave-reliefs reflect part of the reactions to this experience. A one-sided preoccupation with the public side of these monuments will obscure the primary function of these reliefs within the contexts of the burial and mourning processes.
- Das Mount-Stewart-Relief. Angehörige eines attischen Oikos in Nordirland
- Werner J. Schneider
A recently published marble relief from Mount Stewart Country House in Northern Ireland should be identified more correctly as an interesting type of Attic funeral monument. As a result of this its chronology can be easily defined according to stylistic comparison with the abundant evidence of Attic funeral and documentary reliefs. The onomastic inscriptions yield supplements to the corpus of Attic personal names. The most peculiar trait of this unique relief, however, is the composition of its five figures that are arranged to form a geminated dexiosis-scene. Up until now the only parallels for this are provided by marble grave-vases and base-reliefs from more representative monuments: comparative material found on Attic funerary slabs from the classic period had not existed.
- Überlegungen zur Deutung skythischer Goldblechreliefs
- Reinhard Stupperich
Most of the fourth-century BC Skythian gold sheet and toreutic reliefs of Greek workmanship or imitating Greek models belong to a limited number of general types which sometimes are enlarged by additional figures and features that may add information for our understanding of the scene type. For the scene type of a seated lady and a man or youth with a drinking cup some interpretations are offered and the problem of cruel representations in Skythian art such as head hunting and offering of human victims is dealt with.
- Der Heilige Bezirk des Apoll auf Delos. Versuch einer stadtgestalterischen Betrachtung
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
On the basis of one hundred and thirty years‘ excavations the development of the sanctuary of Apollo and of the town developing around it can be traced over half a millennium in exemplary way. The author uses a very clear and comprehensible visional method of analysing and interpreting the architectural and conceptual changes in the centre of the settlement, the sanctuary, following the lines of a psychology of perception (‚Wahrnehmungspsychologie‘). The growing of the sanctuary is not casual, but verging towards a differentiation into separate, but closely connected functional sub-districts. The development of the settlement is understood as directed by visual axes and connections due to the importance of the sacred procession, the „theoria“.
- Roman Cyprus and Roman Cyrenaica. An Architectural Contrast within Historical Parallels
- G. R. H. Wright
Although Cyprus and Cyreneica came under Roman rule as parts of the one historical process (the piecemeal assimilation of the Ptolemaic Empire during the first century B. C.), this concealed basic differences in turn deriving from the fact that whereas again the regions were brought under Ptolemaic rule at the one juncture (about 250 years previously), they then had a totally dissimilar historical background. Cyreneica was an early (7th century B. C.) and archetypal Greek colony planted among „barbarians“ (Berber tribes); Cyprus was part of the old Levantine Middle-East World which (exceptionally) had received an influx of Mycennaean Greek culture towards the end of the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1200 B. C.) So that the Greek langauge became current in the Island, but its Middle Eastern life style survived. In this way despite many likenesses there were many unexpected differences between Roman building in the two regions, both in design process and in construction.
- Dionysischer Relieffries auf einem Silberbecher. Ein Neufund aus dem Rheinkies bei Neupotz
- Reinhard Stupperich
In summer 1997 part of a silver cup with bacchic relief of earlier imperial times was found in the Rhine gravel at Neupotz close to Rheinzabern. Though it is of much higher quality, it may belong to the big amount of metal objects found there during the previous years and published recently by Ernst Künzl. They probably formed part of the booty brought back by Alamannic warriors from a plundering campaign though Gaul may-be during the 259/60 AD incursions. The classicizing style of the figures, a satyr and a maenad, points back to classical patterns used or copied by the Roman silversmith.
- Philostrat der Jüngere, Gemäldebeschreibungen. Aus der "Werkstatt" der Analyse seiner Beschreibungstechnik
- Beate Noack-Hilgers
This article is a specimen of a commentary (being prepared by the author of the article) on the ecphrases of paintings written by Philostratus the Younger. The focus of this specimen (imago 6  »Hercules in incunabulis«) lies on the one hand in analysing the technique of description and on the other hand in comparing the literary with the iconographical tradition of the myth. This comparison reveals that in writing down his ecphrases Philostratus had in fact in mind not only the literary sources, but also paintings or at least iconographical elements in the fine arts of his time. Furthermore, the article includes remarks on the so-called ôSecond Sophisticö, on the biographie of Philostratus, and on his collection of ecphrases as a whole.
- Die latinisierten Griechen
- Johann Benos
Recent research proved that in ancient Greece, too, there were huge areas in which Latin was spoken. In order to guard their main roads the Romans used soldiers and loyal local subjects who consequently were latinized. We can identify such language islands along the Via Egnatia and the main roads leading to southern Greece. In Byzantine times most of these latinized Greeks returned to their original language: Greek. But in remote areas they continued to speak their Latin idiom. They survived the Ottoman time and their language and dialects are still spoken in Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Rumania. They call themselves Romans.
- Die Behandlung der griechischen Geschichte in der Weltchronik des Hartmann Schedel
- Richard Klein
In the World Chronicle of the physician and humanist from Nuremberg, which features more than 1800 wood carvings (portraits, town panoramas and maps), the Greek civilisation in the past and present plays an important role. In the chapter on mythology, following the example presented by Euhemeros, the gods are hailed as benefactors of mankind. In the treatment of the political history the author focuses on the praise of the cities Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Rhodes as well as the royal conqueror Alexander the Great. From the field of cultural history and the history of ideas famous philosophers, historians and explicitly the Seven Sages are mentioned, but only a conspicuously small number of poets. But for the author contemporary history, with its bloody conquest of the formerly flourishing old imperial city of Constantinople, which he describes with tremendous emotional agitation, is more important than classical antiquity. The author bitterly laments the sack of other Greek cities, regions and islands. The impressive work concludes with an appeal to the German emperor Maximilian I. for a crusade against the Turks. Even today the World Chronicle, despite its compilatory character, is a fascinating book not only for historians.
- Die humanistischen Studien der frühen Neuzeit
- Wolfgang Schibel
This essay contends that some of the objections to the humanist paradigm of linguistic and literary studies that have been raised since the 18th century are unfounded, and that the widespread lack of familiarity with this paradigm among students of early modern literature is bound to hamper historical comprehension of the modes of literary creation and reception characteristic of this period. Upon an outline of the aims and methods of "studium litterarum" as formulated by the Jesuit "ratio studiorum" and by Melanchthon there follows a scrutiny of the attacks directed against this educational practice by two influential critics, Johann Matthias Gesner (1691-1761) and Friedrich Paulsen (1846-1908). A concluding proposal to insert some of the vital procedures of the "studia humaniora" tradition in the modern curriculum of the study of languages and literatures concurrently with intensifying research on historical forms of linguistic and literary behaviour aims at developing the historical phenomenology of literature into an integrant part of the humanities.
- Athens: Modern Planning in an Historic Context Planning Initiatives and Their Impact on the Gradual Creation of the Cultural-Archaeological Park of the City
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
This paper aims at a critical presentation of the various planning initiatives in modern Athens in the context of the historic continuity of the city. Thus special emphasis is placed on the spatial confrontation and coexistence of the new city and the architectural heritage of antiquity as a planning issue. Although none of the initial planning schemes were totally implemented and the evolution of town planning in Athens went its own unpredictable and tortuous way, the basic concept, of a large archaeological zone to be created around the Acropolis as a monumental focal area of cultural identification, has survived all the vicissitudes of the city s development and is today in an advanced stage of realisation.
- Zur Ausmalung der Stadtvilla Serpieri in Athen, der heutigen Hauptstelle der Agrotiki Trapeza
- Reinhard Stupperich
Just as with Schliemann‘s Iliou Melathron there is something special about the near-by residence of the Italian engineer Serpieri, who renewed the exploitation of the silver mines of Lavrion in the mid-19th century. Today it‘s the seat of the Agrarian Bank. Both houses reveal a lot about their original builders, both intentionally and unintentionally. The present essay is concentrating on the wall-paintings, especially the re-interpretation of those illuminating the big billiard room of the house. Here Serpieri had scenes of the Athenian history painted that he felt meaningful for the interpretation of his own career in Athens.
- Zwischen Goebbels und Goethe. 100 Jahre deutsche kulturelle Präsenz in Thessaloniki und Mazedonien
- Hagen Fleischer
From its origins in the late 19th century, the German colony in Salonika/Macedonia, tried to preserve its national identity by founding a German Club, a German School and a Protestant Church - the latter also to be an antidote against ”denationalizing French/Catholic influences”. The German government (and various agencies) subsidized these institutions, while using culture as an instrument to attract a significant part of the indigenous population and to influence their political and economic orientation. In consequence, attempts were made (and reciprocated) to stem the multi-faceted propaganda of the antagonist powers, in particular France and, later, Great Britain. This öscramble for cultural superiorityö culminated in the late Thirties, including remotely related domains, such as war cemeteries / monuments. The German occupation in 1941 û 1944 caused an ostensible boom for German language and culture - which lasted, however, even less than the öblackoutö following the retreat and final defeat of the Wehrmacht in 1944/45. As allied observers noticed with some apprehension, German cultural institutions were back to the scene in the early Fifties, taking advantage of commercial considerations on the side of the Greeks (tobacco trade, tourism). This paper is based mainly on unpublished sources from all parties involved (German, British, French, US, Greek).
- L'Eglise orthodoxe autocéphale de Chypre. Part II: Structure de l'Úglise orthodoxe autocÚphale de Chypre
- Hugues Jean de Dianoux de la Perrotine
The second half of the report on the Church of Cyprus concerns the organization and structure of the church, strating with statistical facts; all institutions of the church are treated in a uniform way from the head, archbishop Makarios III and his bureaucracy, the schools, institutions and organizations depending on him, and the bishops, and the way the influence of the church works, down to the parishes and monasteries. In a chapter full of historical explanations reaching far back Cypriot devoutness is analysed. Several factors opposing and diminishing the influence of the church are discussed as well, such as free-masonry or communism. Finally the other confessions and religions on the island are examined. Among the annexes are short biographies of the leading church dignitaries and passages from the 1960 Constitution concerning religion.
- Die Türkeigriechen seit dem Ersten Weltkrieg: Vom griechisch-orthodoxen Millet zur ethnisch-religiösen Minderheit in der kemalistischen Türkei
- Ekkehard Bornträger
The Greeks of the Ottoman Empire presented until well into the 19th century an economic and demographic, but, in some respects, also cultural challenge to the Greek nation-state, the "Small Kingdom". Up until the eve of the Balkan wars, Constantinople retained its demographic superiority over Athens in its larger number of ethnic Greeks.
The Asia Minor debacle and the Lausanne Peace Treaty (1923) sealed the final defeat of the "Great Idea" irredentist program and led, through mutual population transfers, to a nearly complete congruence of state territory and nation. The Greek inhabitants of Constantinople, as well as the almost exclusively Greek-populated Aegean islands Imbros and Tenedeos, were, however, exempted from the obligatory exchange of populations in return for the Moslems of Western Thrace being allowed to stay, too. With more than 100000 persons, the Greeks of Turkey then still represented the most important faction of Greeks outside the nation-state. Additionally, the long de jure maintenance of their autonomous status (religo-cultural autonomy in Istanbul, political autonomy on the islands) makes this ethnic group an exemplary object for the comparative study of minority protection in general and Turkish minority policy in particular.
The present study seeks to sketch the development of the Greek minority in Republican Turkey in its socio-economic, cultural and demographic aspects, at the same time taking into account the institutional framework and the role of the Patriarchate. It also attempts to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of the minority situation with Turkish administrative practice as well as with the state of Greco-Turkish relations in general. This may contribute to determining which factors have been instrumental in bringing about the mass exodus which has left only a pitiful remainder of the former population of ethnic Greeks in Turkey, numbering merely 2000 persons.
- Kostas Karyotakis: Ideale oder ideelle Selbstmörder?
- Elisabeth Engels
This poem of Kostas Karyotakis (1896-1926) imparts to us in an impressive way something of the personality and view of life of this Greek poet. It seems to tell the 'short story" of his own life: - isolated but he does not seem to be really desperate about this -, and full of contradictions between yearning for some liveliness and nihilistic mockery about life in general and about his fellow beings. Or, to use his own terms: always searching for Ideals, while usually remaining at an (imaginary) level - but at least consequent in his nihilism until death.
- Die kommunistische Bewegung in Zypern; Entstehung, Entwicklung und Beziehung zur griechischen Linken
- Andreas Stergiou
In this study, based on published and unpublished archival material from Cyprus and Germany the author describes the development of the Cypriot communist movement (AKEL) and analyses its relations with the Greek communist party (KKE). The history of AKEL has two faces. On the international level the Cypriot communist movement passed through the usual developments of a party under the control of the international communist center (Comintern, Cominform etc.): The parties had to follow the Soviet policy and the principles of the so called proletarian internationalism. In domestic affairs, however, the attitude of the communists did not follow the classical marxist-leninist line, but adopted a course similar to a typical European social democratic party. By a consistent policy of close relations with the whole of the working people, Greeks, Turks, Armenians and Maronites, AKEL managed to become one of the most successful communist parties today with, relatively, the greatest number of members and followers among the European communist parties.
- Die 1. Gebirgsdivision in Epirus im Sommer 1943. Teil 1: das Massaker von Kommeno
- Hermann Frank Meyer
Greece in the summer of l943. Fearing an imminent invasion of British and US troops in Western Greece and assuming that guerilleros are hiding in Kommeno, Epirus, a surprise attack on that village is carried out in the early morning hours of August 16 by crack German Army units. 317 innocent civilians, men, women and children of all ages are massacred within a few hours, houses were looted and set on fire. Not one single guerillero was in the village at the time. Based on German Army and judicial records, diaries, as well as interviews with perpetrators and survivors, a minutely picture of the events so far unknown to the general public unfolds. The account analyses the terrible events on five levels: the survivors of the massacre, former German soldiers who where ordered to carry out the massacre, former German Army officers who issued the orders, the relationship of the villagers with the guerilleros, and the latters' inability to deal with the German aggressor.
- The Contraction of British Influence in Greece, 1947-55
- Ioannis D. Stefanidis
This article focuses on the rapid decline of British influence in Greece within a few years following the end of the Greek Civil War. This was not simply due to the fact that Britain relinquished the predominant position she had long enjoyed in Greek affairs to the United States; the British governments no longer treated Greece as a potential ally for their plans in the Middle East. Greek governments, for their part, were less and less amenable to British pressures at a time when the Greek Cypriot leadership decided to bring the question of Enosis to a head. By the mid-1950s Greek nationalism was overtly clashing with British imperial strategy over Cyprus. The efforts of British diplomats in Athens to stem the tide are given prominence here as are their warnings which, however, went unheeded.
- Der Zypernkonflikt als Problem der Nationalismus- und Konfliktforschung an deutschen Universitäten
- Emanuel Alexius Turczynski
Searching for the deeper historical reasons and possible ways to a solution of the Cyprus conflict the author pillories the idleness of historians and social scientists in central Europe to inform themselves about the political conditions and to search for the real causes of political conflicts in South East Europe and beyond. After giving some essentials of the history of the ethnic groups on Cyprus that mostly had enjoyed a political and cultural symbiosis right into the 19th century, and of the slowly growing conflict he starts tracing main lines and determinative factors of the development to national self-definition and to nation building in the Balkan area and especially in the future „mother nations“ Greece and Turkey, pointing out the considerable subliminal influence of some distorted ideas stemming from historicism and classicism in central and western Europe. Due to the lack not only in consciousness of the importance of human rights, but in experience in conflict solving, the malfunctioning of the British determined constitution of 1960 was predictable under the cultural conditions of the time. As for the question, wether a return to a inter-ethnic symbiosis is possible at all after the outbreak of the severe conflict, the author is slightly optimistic comparing Cyprus with other historical cases like the self-determination in Italian Tyrol.
- Die BRD und die DDR und die Zypernkrise 1963/64
- Can Özren
During the crisis in Cyprus in 1963/64 the two German states behaved differently. The Federal Republic of Germany followed a principle of neutrality which had been adopted in 1956 und stood aside from the conflict. Western Germany did not want to provoke and disappoint any of the parties involved in order to avoid giving the German Democratic Republic international recognition. On the other hand the GDR seized the opportunity in the international fight against imperialism. By clear support of Greek-Cypriots the GDR hoped to be officially recognized by the Republic of Cyprus. For this research documents from the record offices of both German states were analysed for the first time.
- Exploring Myths and Realities in the Cyprus Problem: Some Examples from 1963-64
- James Ker Lindsay
In almost all conflicts myths arise. Myths are false or inaccurate theories that become embedded in the psychological framework of a conflict and, by doing so, help to perpetuate differences between the parties. Thus myths, in themselves, can often prove to an important factors that result in the prolongation of conflicts. This piece examines the case of Cyprus 1963-64 and explodes three important myths that have arisen in the Cyprus conflict, and each of which is still used as an argument to this day. The first myth is the Greek Cypriot belief that the Treaty of Guarantee has been a detrimental force in Cyprus. The second myth is the Turkish Cypriot belief that at all stages in the Cyprus conflict Athens has manipulated the Greek Cypriots. The third and final myth is the belief held by both Greek and Turkish Cypriots that their respective motherlands have always promoted their best interests during discussions about Cyprus.
- The Second Phase of UN Peacemaking in Cyprus: The Development of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot Negotiating Positions 1966-1974
- Oliver Richmond
The initial phase of UN peacemaking in Cyprus spanned the period between 1964 and the end of 1965. During this period, the Cypriot disputants and their motherlands attempted to manipulate the process of UN peacemaking so that it would effectively aid them in their cause. The report of the UN mediator, Galo Plaza, which was published early in 1965, tended to favour the Greek Cypriot side, and thus the Turkish Cypriot side and Turkey withdrew their support of UN peacemaking as they tended to view it as being of a partisan nature. The following article examines the second phase of UN peacemaking in Cyprus which was severely constrained by the failure of the UN to persuade the Turkish side that it had acted in an impartial spirit in formulating the Galo Plaza Report. It argues that the UN was able to do little more than work for crisis management during this period. As a result peacemaking lay in the hands of the two Cypriot parties and their motherlands, all of which tended to follow conflicting agendas, partly because the UN was unable to intervene decisively in order to bring about a solution.
- The Cyprus Question: Past, Present and Future
- Pavlos Tzermias
In this study the author briefly outlines the turbulent history of Cyprus, from Ottoman and British rule to independence. He bases on his book Geschichte der Republik Zypern. Tzermias analyses the rise of nationalisms and their impact, and he emphasizes that the theory of the existence of two peoples, as held by Ankara and Rauf Denktash, contradicts the conception of an all-Cyprus identity.
- The Politics of UN Involvement and Collective Legitimization in Cyprus
- Joseph S. Joseph
This paper deals with the politics of UN involvement in the Cyprus conflict. The analysis of developments surrounding the UN role in Cyprus revolves around the broader issue of politicization of the world organization and its use as an instrument of national policy and as a lever for exercising political pressure in the international arena. As a global forum for the practice of international politics, the UN is used for a variety of purposes such as a platform for political debate, a means for the mobilization of world public opinion, an arena for diplomatic manoeuvring, and a source of collective legitimization and support. The exploration of the Cyprus case illustrates how the world organization can become involved in a conflict and be used for purposes other than, and in addition to, peacekeeping, peacemaking, and conflict resolution.
- Zur Stellung der türkischen Widerstandsorganisation (TMT) in der Zypernfrage
- Achmet Cavit
The T.M.T, the Turkish-Cypriot underground organization, was formed as a follow-up of Volkan and other Turkish-Cypriot underground groupings against the activities of the E.O.K.A., the Greek-Cypriot underground organization which fought for the union (enosis) of Cyprus with Greece. Its founders were the advocate Rauf R. Denktash, the ENT-Specialist Dr.Burhan Nalbantoglou and Kemal Tannsevdi, an official of the Turkish Consulate in Nicosia, on 15. November 1957, long before 1 August 1958, which is celebrated every year as the official day of its foundation. After the Turkish government adopted thethesis of partition (taksim) of Cyprus at the end of 1956, the Turkish-Cypriot leadership provocated the intercommunal strife especially in the summer of 1958, which was a turning point in the history of the events in Cyprus- The article gives a detailed list of brutal and separatist activities of the T.M.T. and proof of support of the British colonial government for the partition of Cyprus. After the foundation of the Republic of Cyprus, the T.M.T. continued to exist through the 1960's until the events of 1974, the bloody coup d'Etat of the Greek Army officers in Cyprus and the following invasion and the occupation of Cyprus by the Turkish Army. The so-called Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus of today has been described as the product of the seeds sown by the T.M.T. in 1958 and the events of 21. December 1963.
- 'Sandalenfilme' und der archäologische Blick Protokoll eines Versuchs
- Ruth Lindner
Archaeological discourse of the reception of Antiquity in the Media Age hitherto does not pay much attention to peploi. Nonetheless all of us saw the blockbusters of the genre and many may be unaware how deeply the "beautifully false pictures" are imprinted in their memories. The article attempts to record my work with a group of students and colleagues, initiated primarily to review peploi self-critically. Further, we investigated how Antiquity is staged. Sometimes peploi are harmless or even affirmative seeming camouflage of political or social protest, like Schünzel´s Amphitryon from 1935 or even Kubrick´s Spartacus. Sometimes they are openly propagandistic, like Gallones fascist Scipione l´Africano. Sometimes the impression of faithfully reproduced history is generated, as in Griffith´s Intolerance with subtitles drawing attention to Herodotus or recently excavated cylinders. As early as 1911 another silent film introduced Minoan columns, Mycenaean silver-ware and the decorations of the Hagia Triada sarcophagus to furnish Homeric settings. Another way to pretend authenticity is to satisfy the audiences prejudice formed by 19th century paintings by Alma Tadema and others. In more recent times Fellinis Satyricon created an intentional strangeness to make visible the gap separating us from the past. Most promising finding from my point of view is the potency of the genre to keep ancient myths developing and alive.
- Antikenrezeption in der zeitgenössischen Kunst Koreas am Beispiel einiger Arbeiten von Yun-Jung Back, Mainz
- Martin H. Schmidt
A group of six works of the young in Germany living Korean artist Y. J. Back done in 1996 in Mainz are analysed. Special attention is paid on the reception of ancient Greek elements, artistic improvement in South-Korea and the relationship between Germany and South-Korea since the 1960s.
- Democracy in NorthCyprus
- The Economy of the Northern Part of Cyprus
- Joint Declaration