Mannheimer Beiträge zur klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Herausgegeben von Reinhard Stupperich und Heinz A. Richter
Band 7 (2000) ISBN 978-3-941336-37-7
- The Non-Specialized Offices in the Knossos Archive
- Irena Slavkova
This article presents a detailed subject study of the documentation in the two non-specialized offices in the Knossos Archive - C and I. The comparative analysis has brought to light some interesting results and an attempt has been made to their interpretation. The records in both offices share common topics that presume a kind of structural resemblance between the economic units described, however differing with regard to their scale and scope. The difference between the economic structures as reflected in these offices points to some possible explanations. It seems quite probable that in the case of Bureau C we have to do with palace farms in particular, aimed at the immediate maintenance of the Palace and its administration. On the other hand, the economic expansion of the Palace called forth the necessity of specialized offices to look after the new differentiated trends and of the Central Deposit which focused the main tendencies of economic and socio-administrative development.
A diachronical approach to the problem may offer some new viewpoints of interpretation, i.e. the documentation in Bureau C may present the “nuclear” from which the palace economy, as we know it from its last year of existence, gradually developed into an elaborate and stratified economic organism.
- Raum und Gegenstand, Teil I
- Hans v. Steuben
This article is part of a major work on the relation between subject and object in Greek art. At the
same time it may serve, together with other articles written by the author, as an introduction to
Greek topography, architecture, sculpture and painting. This is the first part of the section dealing
with topography. It describes the way from the cyclical or radial room of communication to the
orthogonal room in architecture, or idealiter from circle to square. A group of people talking to
one another automatically forms a circle, and so do the first public meeting places in Greece, whose
development is described here.
- Der Linksdrall im Sport
- Marcel Schoch
Running events in modern sports stadiums are generally carried out counter-clockwise. This leftward
tendency is not limited to track competitions, however. The majority of horse and sulky races today
are also run counter-clockwise. When one looks beyond the realm of sports, one readily discovers other
aspects of daily life in which the leftward direction dominates. This raises the question as to
whether a continuity of this leftward tendency can be established in the history of sports.
Unfortunately, most of the modern authors who have investigated the various forms of ancient foot,
horse and chariot races have only occasionally dealt with the phenomenon of the leftward bent. Fewer
still have offered explanations. So far historical research has not dealt with the question of how
far back in history this tendency can be traced. On the basis of selected archeological and
historical evidence from Greek and Roman times, Schoch pursues the question of how prevalent the
leftward orientation of foot, horse and chariot races was in ancient times and to what extent this
tradition continued through the European middle ages into modern times. The results of this study
prove that horse, wagon and foot races demonstrate a definite counterclockwise tendency. The
leftward bent, however, is less an innate human disposition than a phenomenon determined by culture,
religion and/or traditions and can be compensated for through appropriate training.
- An Escaped Eagle From Petra
- G. R. H. Wright
An attempt is made here to present for expert consideration an object of both archaeological
interest and artistic merit – of which the only surviving record comprises two damaged photographs
and some guarded verbal statements made many years ago. It is the finely carved stone head of an
eagle about life size, said to have been obtained in Petra nearly 50 years ago. The original format
of the object can not be conclusively determined – i.e. whether it was rock carving or whether it
was from architectural sculpture on a built monument. In any event it is a fine example of naturalism
in Hellenistic sculpture, without any trace of oriental influence. As such it is of significance in a
number of contexts, e.g. the destinies of oriental hellenism; the development of hellenistic
sculpture; and also, in a more limited and local application, the vexed question of the chronology of
the Petra monuments. These issues are suggested by brief reference to sculpture from Petra, Medain
Saleh, Khisbeb et Taanur, Nemrud Dag, Hatra, Palmyra, and Jewish Synagogues.
- Byzantium: Statehood or Nationhood?
- Manussos Marangudakis
The case of the Eastern Roman Empire escapes the symantic differentiation between pre-modern empires
and modern nation-states. Indeed, particular technological tools which are considered essential for
the existence of a modern nation-state, such as printing press, were absent. Yet, other essential to
nation-state forms of social organisation, such as centrally imposed mobilisation of human resources,
and dissemination of state ideology to the periphery were present. Furthermore, for more than three
hundred years (8th - 11th centuries) the Eastern Roman Empire experienced a cultural homogeneity
unique among traditional, agricultural, empires based on both linguistic and religious homogeneity.
Nevertheless, being build during the age of empires, Byzantium lacked the cognitive and technological
tools to become a stable entity. We have to wait until the 17th century and the 'mature' rivalry
between France and England for the era of nation-states to arrive in earnest. The analysis suggests
that the supremacy of modern nationalism is founded not so much on the presence or not of cultural or
military cohesion, but on the interaction of states equipped with similar cognition and similarly
advanced technologies. Technologies that allow the state to intensify its presence on the periphery
and binds the former to its organisational structures.
- Herrscher im Schatten: Konstantin VIII. (960/961-1028)
- Klaus-Peter Todt
Konstantin VIII (born in 960/961) was the younger brother of the famous Byzantine emperor Basil II
(976-1025). Since 976 both brothers reigned together the Empire, but during the lifetime of his elder
brother Constantine stood in his shadow. While Basil led the imperial armies to triumphant victories
over rebels, Arabs and Bulgarians, Constantine stayed in Constantinople and fulfilled the necessary
administrative and ceremonial duties of the imperial office. His own reign after his brother‘s death
from December 1025 until his death in November 1028 is traditionally interpreted to be the beginning
of the decline of the Empire. The article shows, that this wrong picture of Constantine‘s mostly
successful reign must be corrected, because it is the result of a systematic posthumous denigration of
his reign and his personality by the followers of his elder brother, which tried to prevent his
succession in December 1025 and were consequently replaced in their position by the Emperor‘s faithful
eunuchs, who showed themselves with one exception as capable administrators and generals.
- Vom ‘Schwarzen Dienstag’ zum Frieden von Lausanne Das lange Sterben der ‘Großen Idee’ oder: Auf dem Balkan gediehen nicht nur nationale Mythen
- Helmut Castritius
The Greek-Byzantine Empire with its capital on the Bosporus considered itself the Roman Empire of
Augustus, Constantine and their successors. And even after its conquest by the Ottomans it remained
more than a myth interesting only for European intellectuals in search of antiquity. The subjected
peoples, especially the Greeks, preserved their intellectual heritage of a great past all through the
centuries of Ottoman-Turkish domination. This became obvious in the context of the liberation struggle
after 1821. The ensuing concept of the Megali Idea of building a new empire comprising all former
subjects of the Byzantine Empire under Greek leadership became a alternate concept to the nation state
which for some times was very attractive. At the same time this topic is ideal for speculation about
different courses history might have taken.
- Zur Erforschung der Quellen und Kommentierung des Agrippa von Nettesheim, De incertitudine et vanitate scientiarum et artium declamatio invectiva
- Burkhart Cardauns
De incertitudine et vanitate scientiarum, the principle work of Cologne humanist and physician Heinrich
Agrippa von Nettesheim in the form of a cynical invective , still needs a modern edition with
commentary and translation. The author reminds us of this desideratum.
- Instrumentalisierung der Antike in der Herrscherpräsentation am Beispiel des “Winterkönigs” Friedrich von der Pfalz
- Peter Bilhöfer
Elector Palatine Frederic V, the so-called Winterkönig, whose election to the throne of Bohemia
caused the Thirty Years‘ War drowning central Europe in streams of blood, is a typical example how
renaissance and baroque princes made use of the abundant iconographical material offered by antiquity
to establish an impressive presentation of their power, knowledge and virtues. The author offers new
and more detailed interpretations for the splendid decorations and feasts surrounding the celebration
of Frederic‘s marriage to Elisabeth Stuart daughter of James I.
- Die Griechischen Minoritäten in Süditalien ihre Kultur u. Tradition von der Antike bis heute
- Eleftheria Wollny-Pópota
In southern Italy, in the region of Salento and in Calabria there are villages where Greek is spoken by many
of the locals even today. The number of these Greek speakers is estimated to be 50.000 to 55.000. It
is impossible to state the places where they came from, nor the precise time of their arrival.
However, on the basis of the numerous Doric elements in their dialect called “Grico” it is assumed
that their ancestors came with the first settlers of the Magna Grecia in the 8th century b.c.
- Griechische Jatrophilosophen und Aufklärer des 18. Jh.
- Johann Benos
The term iatrophilosopher was used first in 16th century Germany characterising a physician who also
did research in theoretical sciences such as Philosophy, Philology, Theology etc. In modern Greece
there were many iatrophilosophers. A few of the more important ones are dealt with in this article:
Matio Megdanis-Sakelariou (1790-1863), feminist and humanist; Ioannis Kolettis (1774-1847) the
politician and innovator of new Greece; Georgios Sakellariou (1765-1838) poet of melancholy poetry
(youngism) in Greece; Dimitrios Karakassis (1730-1804) innovator of the hygienical and medical system
of Romania; Konstantinos Karakassis (1773-1828) anthropologist; Alexandros Mavrokordatos (1636-1709)
poet and explorer of human blood circulation system; Nikolaos Mavrokordatos (1670-1730) novelist;
Dimitrios Pamperis (1650?-1730?) biographer, and Ioannis Vilaras (1771-1823) poet and linguist of
- From Enlightenment to Romanticism: The Origins of Modern Greek National Identity, 1453-1878
- Victor Roudometof
Nationalism was absent among the members of the Rum millet prior to the 1750s. The rise of nationalism
is related to the cultural, commercial, and intellectual links between the Ottoman Empire and Western
Europe in the post-1750 period. Under the influence of Enlightenment and the French revolutionary
tradition, secret societies were formed and revolutionary plans developed, ultimately leading to the
1821revolutions. During this period, pro-Western intellectuals of various ethnic origins
reconceptualized the Rum millet as a secular and liberalcommunity. In this period, there is
considerable ambiguity with regard to the definition of the "Greeks" because the word is used to
designate both the Orthodox Christians as well as the ethnic Greeks. In the post-1832 period, the
cultural, political, and socioeconomic conflicts in the Kingdom of Greece further shaped the definition
of the "Greeks." The rise of romanticism fostered the construction of a state-centered Greek
nationalist literature. This literature further refined the basic components of Modern Greek identity
by claiming both the classical heritage of Ancient Greece as well as the post-Byzantine tradition of
the Eastern Orthodox Church. The new synthesis provided the ammunition for the Greek "Great Idea" as
well as the foundation of nineteenth and twentieth century Greek identity.
Nationalism was absent among the members of the Rum millet prior to the 1750s. The rise of nationalism is
related to the cultural, commercial, and intellectual links between the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe
in the post-1750 period. Under the influence of Enlightenment and the French revolutionary tradition,
secret societies were formed and revolutionary plans developed, ultimately leading to the 1821
revolutions. During this period, pro-Western intellectuals of various ethnic origins reconceptualized
the Rum millet as a secular and liberalcommunity. In this period, there is considerable ambiguity with
regard to the definition of the "Greeks" because the word is used to designate both the Orthodox
Christians as well as the ethnic Greeks. In the post-1832 period, the cultural, political, and
socioeconomic conflicts in the Kingdom of Greece further shaped the definition of the "Greeks." The
rise of romanticism fostered the construction of a state-centered Greek nationalist literature. This
literature further refined the basic components of Modern Greek identity by claiming both the classical
heritage of Ancient Greece as well as the post-Byzantine tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The
new synthesis provided the ammunition for the Greek "Great Idea" as well as the foundation of nineteenth
and twentieth century Greek identity.
- Der Berliner Baumeister Friedrich Gilly und sein Einfluß auf den griechisch orientierten Klassizismus seiner Schüler unter besonderer
Berücksichtigung von Carl Haller von Hallerstein
- Wolfgang Schiering
The article analyses the situation of mainly German architecture during a short period concentrated on
classical Greek buildings and architectural elements. Beginning with the famous “Brandenburger Tor”
(1789-91) and the leading role of Friedrich Gilly (1772-1800) the paper describes some of the best known
works in Berlin (“Neue Wache” and “Altes Museum”) and Munich (Glyptothek and Walhalla). Besides Schinkel
and Klenze another, today less known, architect continued the ideas of Gilly: Carl Haller von
Hallerstein (1774-1817). His life and the limited knowledge of his activities as an architect and
archaeologist play a particular role in this article.
- Städte und Landschaften in Griechenland zur Zeit König Ottos
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
Back to Vienna after his dismissal from Athenian service as the city’s architect in 1843 Friedrich Stauffert
published a report on the conditions of Athens and other Greek towns. The material for this report he
had collected during his years of architectural work in Greece. This small new ‚Pausanias‘ - though
of limited scope - of the newly established Greek state of his time offers an interisting review of
regional development, economic situation and public works done in liberated Greece, but needs some
- Klenze und Griechenland
- Alexander Papageorgiou-Venetas
In 1834 king Ludwig I of Bavaria sent Leo von Klenze, the influencial Munich classicist architect,
to Athens to help his son Otto, the young king of Greece. Klenze was to revise for him the plan of
the new capital Athens prepared by Schaubert and Kleanthes, pupils of Klenze‘s Berlin friend and
rival Karl Schinkel. Despite the trouble he had in Athens with his unloved secret job of interfering
in politics in order to press the replacment of some members of the regency for the minor king,
Klenze succeeded in doing some good services to the urban development of Athens and in gaining deep
insight into ancient Greek architecture and modern Greek life. Traces of the the deep impressions the
journey made on him are to be found in his ‚Aphoristic Remarks‘ published shortly afterwards,
comments and cynical remarks on Ludwig’s politics he spared for his unedited ‚Memorabilia‘.
- Bachtin und der antike Roman
- Andreas Fuchs
The work of the Russian literary theoretician Michail Bachtin, who died in Moscou a quarter of
a century ago, added new terms and new tools to the theory of the novel. The use of one of his key
terms chronotop is demonstrated by applying it to antique novels, starting with Charitons’s famous
“Chaireas and Kallirhoe”. The author points out that Bachtin’s theories can be successfully applied
to the antique novel in several other ways as well.
- Sozialdemokratischer Widerstand im besetzten Griechenland: die Gruppe um Georg Eckert
- Heinz A. Richter
Former east German historiography (GDR) described German communist resistance in occupied Greece
in all details. There were quite a number of anti-Nazi activities within the German occupation
troops among the 999 units in Greece. Many of those deserted the German Army and joined EAM/ELAS.
Social-democratic resistance, however, was hushed up though it played a much greater role. The
leading figure of this group was Major Georg Eckert. The article describes his resistance activities
within the German hierarchy of Army Group E until the end of the occupation. Eckert cooperated closely
with EAM/ELAS of Thessaloniki. With Eckert’s help nothing important was destroyed in that town when
the German units left Greece. Few days before the German withdrawal he and his group defected to EAM
since their activities had been spotted by the Gestapo. He participated in the liberation parade and
until February 1945 Eckert was able to move freely but then he was arrested by the British which took
over after the Varkiza Agreement. After the war Eckert made a brilliant academic career but never
forgot his resistance liaison officer, Georgios Dimitrakos.
- Georgios Dimitrakos: Widerstandskämpfer, Humanist, Europäer
- Heinz A. Richter
Georgios Dimitrakos was born in Asia Minor. In 1922 he arrived as a fatherless poor refugee youth
in Salonica. By hard work he managed to finish school and go to university. During the world economic
crisis in 1929 he became a member of the youth movement of the Greek communist party. After he
finished the university of Thessaloniki he got a scholarship for studies at the university of Hamburg.
He finished his studies with a PhD and after his return to Greece he started teaching at the German
School at Thessaloniki. He participated in the Albanian Campaign and became a member of EAM. In 1944
the ELAS High Command made him liaison officer with Eckert’s resistance group. After the war he
suffered the typical fate of a Greek leftist, i.e. he was persecuted, jailed and exiled. In the
mid-fifties he became co-director of the German School in Athens. When this institution celebrated
its 100th anniversary the retired was treated rather improperly.
- Zur politischen Kultur Zyperns
- Hubert Faustmann
Due to fact that the historical development of the Cyprus conflict led to the geographical
separation of its Greek and Turkish communities, there are two different political cultures on
the island. Given the Republic of Cyprus’ aspiration to become a member of the European Union,
this article attempts to assess the extent to which both communities share the culture, values and
principles on which the European Union is built. This assessment takes place in the context of a
general description of the two political cultures. It is argued that despite their considerable
differences, the political cultures of both communities share Western European features to a higher
degree than their respective mother countries for historical reasons. At least as far as the Greek
Cypriot community is concerned, it is concluded that the Republic of Cyprus should not be denied EU
membership on grounds that its political culture does not live up to Western European standards.
- Environmental Policy in the Balkans: The Albanian Experience
- Constantine P. Danopoulos and Andrew C. Danopoulos with Filip Kovacevic
This article traces and analyses the environmental record of one of Europe's poorest states, Albania.
In the three decades preceding WW II, the country's politically unstable and largely agricultural
society produced the first signs of environmental degradation, characterized by widespread
deforestation and soil erosion. The nationalistic and xenophobic communist regimes that followed
pursued a policy of crush industrialization and self-reliance.
Despite proliferating water, air, and other forms of pollution, the country's authoritarian rulers
ignored the problem. A chronically weak economy and hermetic isolation contributed to government inaction
and lack of environmental awareness. Plagued by similar economic, political, and other ills, the
democratically elected governments that govern Albania since the demise of the communist regime in the
early 1990s, have been unable and/or unwilling to put in place a coherent and effective policy to address
the country's deteriorating environment. Albania's predicament is shared by most of its Balkan neighbours
and the overwhelming majority of former Eastern bloc countries.
- Der Makedonien-Konflikt und das Internet
- Alexander Jossifidis
The World Wide Web is a medium which has changed its importance in the last decade radically: From a
means used only by a few enthusiasts to a medium used by a broad public. Considering this
circumstances it is not astonishing that the WWW is used by numerous people to propagate their
(political) opinion. In the case of the Macedonian Conflict one can find dozens of pro-Greek as well
as pro-Bulgarian and last but not least pro-Slavomacedonian entries from all over the world: of
course from Greece, Bulgaria and the FYROM but also from Germany, Sweden, Canada, Australia, the USA
etc. etc. This essay analyses some of those web pages which have an exemplary character. In addition
a very bizarre web page from Australia will be analysed. It shows that the WWW can be used by every
charlatan and this danger must always be kept in mind.
The essay ends with a short historical summary of the antagonisms within and around Macedonia. Altogether it conveys an idea on the emotionally charged character of the antagonism - both in the past and today.
- In Memoriam Marion Sarafis
- Heinz A. Richter
Marion Sarafis, nee Pascoe, studied classics in Oxford. After her exam she continued her studies
at Cambridge reading archaeology. During her field studies in Greece she met General Stefanos Sarafis
who was exiled in the Aegean because he had participated in the republican upheaval in 1935. During
the war he became C.-in-C. Of ELAS and during the Greek Civil War he was jailed in Makronissos. Marion
kept contact with him during those horrible years and in 1953 they married. After the end of the Civil
War he became one of the leaders of the Left (EDA). Becoming more and more dangerous for American
interests in Greece he was killed by a “car accident”. Marion returned to England but never lost
interest in Greece. During the dictatorship she took part in the democratic resistance and when we
started publishing Thetis she took a keen interest in our work.
- Die Erinnerungen des Hans Wende, 1942 bis 1944 "Sachbearbeiter für Bandenangelegenheiten" in der "Führungsabteilung Ic" des Oberkommandos der Heeresgruppe E, Griechenland
- Hermann Frank Meyer
In l942 Hans Wende, a pre-war teacher at the German school in Athens, joined the German Army Group
"E" in Arsakli, Saloniki and was soon appointed responsible specialist to report on activities of
the guerilla bands ("Bandensachbearbeiter"). In fall of l943 Kurt Waldheim was transferred from
Athens to Arsakli and Wende worked directly under him. From November l943 to September l944 Wende
wrote highly elaborated monthly reports on the activities of the various bands. When the Wehrmacht
withdrew from Greece in October l944, Wende ignored orders and took hundreds of secret documents
After the war Wende in vain attempted to sell his "treasure" to Greek newspapers, publishers, and the Greek General Staff. Most of the documents finally ended up in the German military archives (Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv), Freiburg. But some documents were kept by Wende and they are published herewith for the first time, along with his own account, written in the early fifties, on the Greek resistance movements.
- Escape from Salonika
- Sam Hassid
Sam Hassid was born into a Jewish family in Thessaloniki. When the deportation of the Jews of
Thessaloniki started Sam Hassid’s father did not believe the lies told by the SS authorities that
the Jews would be given new places to stay at in Poland. Therefore he decided to have the members of
his family flee to the Italian zone of occupation and to Athens. The article contains Sam Hassid’s
moving remembrances of this dangerous journey.
- Das griechische Memorandum zur „Washingtoner Conference on Holocaust-era Assets“: Vor- und Nachbemerkungen
- Hagen Fleischer
This paper provides additional information about the (attached) Greek government memorandum to the
Washington "Conference on Holocaust-era Assets" in 1998. The focus is on the continuity, before and
after 1990, of German efforts to avoid paying compensations and war debts to countries, particularly
Greece, occupied by German forces during World War II.
- British Nuclear Weapons in Cyprus in the 1960s. The Evidence from the Archives
- Claude Nicolet
The recent debate on whether the UK had stored nuclear weapons on Cyprus during the Cold War is taken
up again with new evidence. While British documents merely suggest the presence of nuclear weapons at
the Akrotiri Base Area, newly declassified US documents explicitly assert such a storage during the
1960s. Both Britain and the US regarded the presence of these weapons in Cyprus necessary for the
British nuclear commitment to the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).